CAMP AND GARRISON DUTY.
The calls most common in camp are as follows:
REVEILLE. This. the signal which awakens the soldier at day break.
PEAS ON A TRENCHER. This is the signal for breakfast.
SERGEANT'S CALL. This is the signal which brings the First Sergeant
of each company
to the Adjutant's quarters, it is issued for bringing
in the morning reports, to notify the First Sergeants of the issue
of rations, or any detail necessary to be attended to by them in
CALL, sometimes called Surgeon's call, is the signal for bringing invalids
to the hospital.
Is the signal for guard mounting.
BEEF. Is the signal for dinner.
CALL. (The first part of the Troop,) is the signal for the Adjutant
to come for orders. It
is also the signal for assembling
companies for dress parade on the battalion parade ground.
This is usual at sunset, and is the, signal for firing the sun down
This is the signal for retiring to quarters.
10. TAPS. This is the signal for extinguishing lights. Upon the drum
it is a seven stroke roll, and nine taps; upon the bugle it is No.
12 of U. S. Infantry Tactics of 1861.
ASSEMBLY. This is the signal for the companies to assemble on their
12. TO THE
COLOR This signal forms the battalion. It usually succeeds the assembly.
THE DRUMMER'S CALL. This signal brings the drummers together for
beating the stated calls.
These calls for the fife and drum can be found at the close of the
first volume of Scott's Infantry Tactics; for the bugle in U. S.
of 1861, pp. 194-214.
three daily roll calls in each company, under the superintendence of
one of its commissioned officers. The first follows immediately
after reveille, the second after retreat, or evening parade, and
immediately after tattoo. Absentees from either roll call, unless
excused are usually subjected to extra tours of guard, or police
after reveille roll Call, the tents and quarters are put in order by
the men in each company, under the superintendence
chiefs of squads. The guard-house or tent is put in order by the
guard, or when sufficiently numerous, by the prisoners.
The reports of each company, signed by its Captain and First Sergeant,
will be handed into the Adjutant daily, at the First Sergeant's call,
and consolidated by the Adjutant for the Colonel's information.
At the sick call, (or Surgeon's call,) the sick then in the
companies are conducted to the hospital by one of the Sergeant's,
(the First when
practicable.) who will each hand to the Surgeon, in his company book,
a list of all the sick of the company, on which the Surgeon will state
who are to remain in, or go into hospital; who are to return to quarters
as sick or convalescent; what duties the convalescent in quarters are
capable of; what cases are feigned, and any other information in regard
to the sick of the company he may have to communicate to the company
Camp and garrison guards are relieved every twenty-four hours. The first
call for guard mounting is usually the assembly. It precedes the second
call, which is the troop, fifteen minutes. At the first call, the men
warned for duty turn out on their company parades for inspection by
the First Sergeant of each company. At the second call, they repair
to the regimental parade, conducted by the First Sergeant. Each detachment
as it arrives will, under the direction of the Adjutant, take post
on the left of the one that preceded it, in open order, arms shouldered,
and bayonets fixed, the First Sergeants in rear of the men of their
respective companies. The Sergeant-Major will dress the ranks, count
the files, verify the details, and when the guard is formed, report
to the Adjutant, and take post two paces on the left of the front rank.
The Adjutant then command Front, when the officer of the guard takes
post twelve paces, in front of the centre; the Sergeants of the guard
(but not the First Sergeants) in one rank, four paces to the real of
the officer, and the Corporals in one rank, four paces in rear of the
Sergeants, all facing to the front. The music is formed in two ranks
on the right of the line. If there is a junior officer of the guard,
he takes post twelve paces in front of the centre of the fourth section,
as if he were a First Lieutenant. The Adjutant then assigns their places
in the guard. This is usually done by supposing the guard to constitute
a company, of which the officer of the guard is Captain, the junior
officer (if there be one) is First Lieutenant, and the Sergeants. First,
Second and Third, according to seniority. Thus the officer of the guard
will be assigned to the command of the first platoon, the junior officer
to the command of the second platoon, the senior Sergeant will be guide
of the first platoon, and the next in rank the guide of the second
The Adjutant will then command,
1. OFFICERS and non-commissioned officers. 2. About --FACE !
Inspect your guards --MARCH !
At the second command the officers, Sergeants and Corporals, face about;
at the third command they take the posts assigned them, except the
officer of the guard, who stands fast, after having faced about, and
Order --ARMS! 2. Inspection-ARMS!
And inspects his guard. When there is a junior officer of the guard,
he inspects the rear rank, and when there is no commissioned officer
on the guard, the Adjutant will inspect it. During inspection the band
The inspection ended, the officer of the guard takes post four paces
in front of the front rank of the guard opposite his post on the right.
The junior officer will take post four paces in front of the front rank,
opposite the centre of the fourth section. The officers of the day will,
at the same time, tale post in front of the centre of the guard. The
old officer of the day three paces on the right of the new officer of
the day, and one pace retired.
The Adjutant will now command,
Parade --REST! 2. Troop -- BEAT OFF!
When the music beginning on the right will beat down the line in front
of the officer of the guard to the left. and back to its place on the
right, where it will cease to play. The Adjutant now commands,
Attention. 2. Shoulder --ARMS! 3. Close Order- MARCH!
At the Words " close order," the officers will face about;
at " march " resume their posts in line. The Adjutant then
He will then face to the officer of the day, salute, and report, "Sir,
the guard is formed." If the Adjutant is of higher rank than the
officer of the day, he will report without saluting, either then, or
when marching in review. The new officer of the day, after acknowledging
the salute, will direct the Adjutant to march the guard in review, or
by a flank to its post.
If in review, the Adjutant will then face about and command,
1. By platoon, right wheel. 2. MARCH! 3. Pass in review. 4. Column foreward.
5. Guide right. 6. MARCH!
The guard marches in review past the officer of the day, officers saluting,
and conducted by the Adjutant, who marches on the left of the first
platoon, the Sergeant Major on the left of the last platoon.
When the column passes the officer of the day, the Adjutant, Sergeant-Major,
and First Sergeants, retire, and the officer of the guard marches it
to its post. The music marches at, the head of, the column until it arrives
opposite the officer of the day, where it wheels out of the column, and
takes post opposite the officer of the day. When the real of the column
has passed, the music will cease. The old officer of the day will then
salute the new officer of the day, and transmit to him the orders arid
the instructions he may have received, and under which he has been acting
as officer of the day, during his tour of service the day previous.
The old officer of' the guard, on the approach of the new guard, forms
his old guard in line, and taking post on its right commands,
The new guard marches past the old in quick time, at shouldered arms,
officers saluting and takes post four paces on its right, where, having
form ed on the same line with it, the new officer of the guard will command,
The two officers will then approach each other and salute. They will
then return to their respective guards, and both command,
Shoulder --ARMS! 2. Order --ARMS!
The new officer of the guard having ascertained from the old the number
of posts, -will divide his guard into three reliefs, make out the list
of his guard, and will proceed to take possession of the guard-house
or guard tent, and the articles and-prisoners in charge of the guard,
and while the sentinels are being relieved, the old officer of the
guard will give to the new all formation and instructions he may have
received during his tour of service.
The first relief is designated and marched two paces to the front. It
is then numbered, the numbers beginning with the right front rank man,
who is number one, the right rear-rank man being number two. the front
rank man of the second file from the right being number three, and so
on alternately from front to rear and right to left. A Corporal of the
new guard will then take charge of the first relief, and proceed to relieve
the sentinels of the old guard still on post, accompanied by a Corporal
of the old guard, who will take command of the old sentinels when the
old are relieved.
If the relief consists of more than twelve sentinels it will be commanded
by a Sergeant, if of twelve or less sentinels, by a corporal.
The relief will march by a flank in two!vaults, with arms constantly at
the support. The first relief being numbered, the Corporal in charge of
it will command,
Without Doubling, Right --FACE! 2. Support --ARMS! 3. Forward. 4. MARCH!
While on the march should an officer approach, the Corporal will command
shoulder arms, and bring his relief again to support arms when the
officer has passed.
The sentinel at the guard tent will be number one, and will be the first
relieved, the others will be successively relieved in their numerical
When a sentinel sees the relief approach in the day time, he will halt
and face to it with his arms at a shoulder. At six paces from him, the
Corporal will command,
1. Relief. 2. HALT!
When the relief will halt and bring its pieces to the shoulder without
further orders. The Corporal will then command, according to the number
of the post,
one, (or two, or three,) Arms --PORT!
Both old and new sentinels will then take the position of arms port,
and approach each other; the old sentinel whispering to the new the
orders and instructions he has received relative to his post. The Corporal
will see that such orders are properly communicated by the old sentinel
to the new one. Both sentinels will then shoulder arms, the old sentinel
passing in quick time to his place in rear of the relief; the new sentinel
remaining at his post.
Support --ARMS! 2. Forward 3. MARCH!
And the relief proceeds in the same manner until the whole is relieved.
When all the sentinels of the old guard have been relieved and brought
in, the old office of the guard will march his guard in quick time past
the new guard, the old guard carrying their pieces at a shoulder, the
new standing at presented arms, both officers saluting, and the drums
of both guards beating.
Before the old guard is dismissed, their pieces will be drawn or discharged
at a target.
When the old guard has marched off fifty paces, the officer of the new
guard will older his men to stack their arms, and will then make himself
acquainted with all the instructions for his post, visit the sentinels,
and question them, as well as the non-commissioned officers, relative
to the instructions they may have received from other persons of the
In brigade encampments the officer of the day must be a field officer,
but in regimental encampments there is a daily detail of a Captain to
act as officer of the day, a First Lieutenant to act as officer of the
guard, and a Second Lieutenant to act as officer of police. The detail
of noncommissioned officers and privates for the guard will be published
daily in battalion orders. The Adjutant will furnish to the Sergeant-Major
the detail, and the Sergeant-Major will furnish to each First Sergeant
the number of non-commissioned officers and privates to be detailed from
each company. This will be given to the First Sergeants on tickets, immediately
after evening dress parade, and the men detailed for the morrow's guard
will be notified by the First Sergeant, on or before tattoo roll call.
The soldier detailed to act as orderly will not be placed on post as
a sentinel, but will report for orders to the Adjutant immediately after
guard mounting, and attend at head-quarters from 8 o'clock A.M., till.
6 o'clock P.M.
OFFICER OF THE DAY.
THE officer of the day, during his tour of service, is the immediate
commander of the encampment, under the directions of the Colonel or
commanding officer, and is charged with its good order and cleanliness.
His authority embraces the entire encampment. A fatigue is furnished
him when necessary. He will see that the regular calls ale beaten at,
the proper time by the drummer of the guard. The drummer of the guard
is usually the drummer of the company commanded by the officer of the
Immediately after the old guard is marched off, the new officer of the
day will report for orders either to the commanding officer, or to such
person as may be designated by him for that purpose, usually the Lieut.
He will see that the officer of the guard is furnished with the parole
and countersign before twilight. He visits the guards during the day
at such times as he may deem necessary, and ascertains from the sentinels
their orders and instructions.
During the night he will satisfy himself frequently of the vigilance
of the guard, and himself make the rounds at night, at least, once before
and once after midnight. Upon being relieved, he will make such remarks
in the report of the officer of the guard as circumstances require, and
present the same at head-quarters.
OFFICER OF THE GUARD.
This officer in regimental encampments is usually a First Lieutenant.
He is subordinate to the officer of the day, and will, obey all orders
received from him. He will remain constantly at his post, at or near
the guard tent, unless while visiting his sentinels, or necessarily
engaged elsewhere in his proper duty. Upon leaving his post, he will
mention his intention and probable time of absence to his immediate
subordinates, the officer of police, or Sergeant of the guard.
Neither officers or soldiers will take off any of their clothing or accoutrements,
or retire to their quarters while on guard, but hold themselves in constant
readiness at the guard-tent, at all hours of the day and night, during
their entire tour of duty.
The officer of the guard must see that the countersign is communicated
to the sentinels a little before twilight. During the night, he orders
patrols and rounds to be made by the officer of the police and Sergeant
of the guard, whenever he thinks necessary, and himself visits the sentinels
frequently. Patrols are made usually after the sentinels have been on
post an hour, or intermediate to the relief.
He will make a report of his tour of service according to the form prescribed
by regulation, and when relieved forward it to the officer of the day.
OFFICER OF POLICE.
The officer of police will be subordinate to the officer of the guard,
and will aid and assist him in his duties. He will have the immediate
superintendence of the police guard during his tour of service, and
all police duty about the encampment. The sentinels of the police guard,
and all interior guards, are not provided with the countersign.
The sword and sash will be worn by officers of the day, guard, and police,
during their entire tour of service. The sash will be worn by officers
of the day across the body, from the right shoulder to the left hip,
instead of round the waist.
Sentinels should be relieved every two hours, unless the weather renders
it necessary to shorten their duty on post.
Each relief, before mounting, is inspected by the officer of the guard.
The Corporal, or Sergeant in command of the relief reports to him, and
presents the old relief on his return.
The countersign is given to such persons as are entitled -to pass during
the night, and to officers, non-commissioned, officers, and sentinels
of the guard.
The parole is imparted to such officers only as have the right to visit
the guards and to make the grand rounds, and to officers commanding guards.
In brigade encampments the parole is imparted to general officers; in
regimental encampments it is usually given to field officers.
When a fire breaks out, or any alarm is given in camp, all guards are
to be immediately under arms.
Sentinels will not take orders, or allow themselves to be relieved, unless
by an officer or non-commissioned officer of the guard, the officer of
the day. a general or field officer, or the commanding officer. All orders
given to sentinels by any officer of higher rank than the officer of the
guard, will be immediately notified to him by the officer giving them.
Sentinels will report every breach of orders or regulations they are
instructed to enforce.
Sentinels must keep themselves on the alert, never sitting down while
on post, but observing everything that lakes place within sight and hearing
of their post. They will carry their arms habitually at a support, or
on either shoulder, but will never quit them, or allow them to be examined
or taken out of their possession by any person whatever. In wet weather
they will secure arms.
No sentinel will quit his post or hold conversation with any persons
not necessary to the proper discharge of his duty. If circumstances require
a temporary relief, he must call for the Corporal of the guard, and be
regularly relieved. All persons, of whatever rank in the service, are
required to observe respect toward every sentinel. In case of disorder,
a sentinel must call out the guard. If a fire breaks out, he must cry "Fire," adding
the number of his post. If in either case the danger is imminent, he
must discharge his piece before calling out.
Each sentinel must repeat all calls made from posts more distant from
the guard-tent than his own, and no sentinel will be posted so distant
as not to t)e heard by the guard, either directly or through other sentinels.
Thus, the sentinel on post No. 9, upon healing the call, "Corporal
of the guard No. 10," must repeat the call in the same words, "Corporal
of the guard No. 10," and this call will be repeated in succession
by the sentinels at posts Nos. 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1. By this means,
the Corporal of the guard is not only notified of the demand made upon
him, but of the precise locality where his presence is required.
Sentinels will present arms to general and field officers, to the officer
of the day, and the commanding officer, although of a rank below a field
officer. To all other officers they will shoulder arms, having previously
brought their pieces to the support arms, prior, to the officer's approach.
Sentinels are instructed to present arms to all officers who have two
rows of buttons upon their coats, or the sash worn across their bodies;
to all other officers they shoulder arms from the support.
The sentinel at any post of the guard, when he sees a body of troops
or an officer entitled to compliment approach, must call out the guard,
and announce -who approaches. Thus, on the approach of the commanding
officer, he would call; "Turn out the guard; commanding officer!''
when the guard is paraded, and salutes with presented arms. In active
service this rule, however, is somewhat modified as to the commanding
officer, who is entitled to the same compliment as the officer of the
day, on his approaching the guard-tent.
In the day time, when the sentinel before the guard tent, sees the officer
of the day approach, he will call: " Turn out the guard; officer
of the day! " The guard will be paraded and salute with presented
Sentinels present arms to all bodies of troops under the command of a
commissioned officer; to those in command of a non-commissioned officer
they will shoulder arms from a support.
Guards do not turn out, as a matter of compliment, after sunset, and
no compliments will be paid by sentinels after that hour, other than
those prescribed for grand rounds.
After the countersign is issued, until broad day light, sentinels will
challenge every person who approaches them, bringing their pieces to
arms port. They will not come to the charge bayonet, unless the person
challenged continues to advance after the order to halt. They will not
fire, unless three successive challenges are passed unnoticed, or unless
they are attacked.
A sentinel in challenging calls: "Who comes there?" If answered: "Friend
with the countersign," and he is instructed to pass persons with
the countersign, he will reply: " Advance friend with the countersign." If
answered: " Friends with the countersign," he will reply: "Halt
friends; advance one with the countersign." This rule is absolute
and imperative. The sentinel must never allow more than one person to
approach him. Thus, if his challenged is answered, "relief," or "patrol," or "grand
rounds," he will reply: "Halt relief," or "patrol," or "grand
rounds, advance Corporal," or "Sergeant with the countersign," and
satisfy himself that the persons or party are what they represent themselves
to be. If lie have no authority to pass persons with the countersign,
or a wrong countersign be given, or the persons have no countersign whatever,
he will cause them to stand and call: " Corporal of the guard," adding
the number of his post. The sentinel will compel every person to advance
to him and give the countersign, and never advance himself for the purpose
of receiving it.
It is a safe rule, after dark, to compel every person to enter or leave
the camp by the guard tent, whether they have the countersign or not."
When any person approaches the guard tent at night, the sentinel before
the guard tent, after challenging, Causes him to halt until examined
by a non-commissioned officer of the guard. If it be the officer of the
clay, or any other officer entitled to inspect the guard and to. make
the grand rounds, the non-commissioned officer will call: " Turn
out the guard," and announce who approaches, when the guard will
be paraded at shouldered arms, and the officer of the guard will, if
he thinks necessary, demand the countersign and parole.
The officer of tile day, or any other officer authorized to do so and
wishing to make the grand rounds, will take from the guard an escort
of a Sergeant and two men. When the rounds are challenged by a sentinel,
the Sergeant will answer: " Grand rounds," and the sentinel
will reply: " Halt grand rounds; advance Sergeant with the countersign." The
Sergeant then advances alone and gives the countersign. The sentinel
will then call: "Advance rounds," and stand at a shoulder till
they have passed. After having made the tour of the camp and arrived
once more at the guard tent, when the sentinel before the guard tent
challenges and is answered: "Grand rounds" by the Sergeant
of the escort, the sentinel will reply: "Halt grand rounds; turn
out the guard, grand rounds," upon which the guard will be drawn
op at shouldered arms. The officer of the guard then directs a Sergeant
and two men to advance. When within ten paces, this Sergeant challenges.
The Sergeant of the grand rounds answers: "grand rounds." The
Sergeant of the guard replies: "Advance Sergeant with the counter
sign." The Sergeant of the rounds advances alone, gives the countersign,
and returns to his round. The Sergeant of the guard calls to his officer: "The
countersign is right," on which the officer of the guard calls: "Advance
rounds." The officer of the rounds then advances alone, the guard
standing at shouldered arms. The officer of the rounds passes along the
front of the guard to the officer, who keeps his post on the right, and
gives him the parole.
In brigade encampments any general officer, or the commanding officer
of a regiment, may visit the guards of his own command, and go the grand
rounds, and be received in the same manner as prescribed for the officer
of the day. In regimental encampments any field officer of the regiment
is entitled to the same privilege.
All material instructions given to a sentinel on post, by persons entitled
to make grand rounds, ought to be promptly notified to the officer of
the guard, by the persons giving such instructions.
There will be daily one dress parade at troop or retreat, as the commanding
officer may direct. Half an hour before troop or retreat, a signal
will be beaten or sounded, (usually the assembly) for the music to
assemble on the regimental parade, and each company to turn out under
arms on its own parade, for inspection and roll call by its own officers.
Ten minutes after that signal, the Adjutant's call will be given, when
the Captains will march their companies (the band playing) to the regimental
parade, where they take their positions in the order of battle as follows:
The color company takes its position first, under the direction of
the Adjutant. This company will throw out both right and left guides,
and be aligned by its Captain by the right. This captain will then
step into the rear rank of his company, to allow the Captain of the
company on the right of the color to align his company by the left.
The first Sergeant of the color company will take post in the line
of file closers opposite his interval. As soon as the color company
is aligned by its Captain, the company on the left of the color will
take its position in line. Its left guide will place himself on the
alignment of the guides of the color company, so as to be opposite
one of the three left files of his company. Its Captain will then align
his company by the tight. The company on the right of the color will
then take its position, its right guide placing himself upon the alignment
of the color guides, so as to be opposite one of the three right files
of his company. Its Captain will then align his company by the left.
The other companies will then form successively to the right and left,
the Captains of the left wings throwing out their left guides, and
aligning their companies by the right, and the Captains of the right
wing throwing out their right guides, and aligning their companies
by the left. The guides, as they place themselves upon the alignment,
will bring their pieces to the present. The Adjutant seeing the battalion
in line, will command
when the guides will resume their positions in line, passing for this
purpose through the nearest Captain's interval; the Captains of the
right wing, who are on the left of their companies, shifting to the
right, passing by the front rank, and the Captain of the color company
will step into the front rank, and be covered by his First Sergeant.
The Adjutant will then command
when arms will be presented, officers saluting.
The Adjutant will then face about to the commanding officer, salute,
and report: "Sir, the battalion is formed," The commanding
officer, having acknowledged the salute by touching his cap, will draw
his sword and command,
1. Battalion. 2. Shoulder --ARMS.
He will then return his sword and direct the Adjutant to form the parade.
The Adjutant then takes his post two paces on the right of the line,
the Sergeant Major two paces on the left. The music will be formed in
two ranks on the right of the Adjutant. The Captain of the first company,
on notice to that effect from the Adjutant. steps one pace to the front,
faces to the left, and gives to his company the command
1. First Company. 2. Order ARMS. 3. PARADE REST,
and retires to his post on the right of his company. This is repeated
by each Captain in succession, from right to left. Each Captain will
describe his company by its number, as " second company," "third
The ceremony will then proceed in accordance with the form as prescribed
in army regulations. All field and company officers and men will be present
at dress parade, unless specially excused, or on some duty incompatible
with such attendance. At the last, word of the command " PARADE
REST," the soldier will carry the right foot six inches in rear
of the left heel, the left knee slightly bent, the body upright upon
the right leg, the musket resting against the hollow of the right shoulder,
the hands crossed in front, the backs of them outward, and the left hand
uppermost. In this position the soldier will remain silent and motionless,
not turning the head or changing the position of the feet. At the command " ATTENTION" the
soldiers will resume the position of ordered arms.
The officers, at the command " PARADE REST," will reverse the
sword, rest the point on the ground in front of and between the feet,
clasp the left hand over the right, both resting on the guard, and carry
the right foot six inches in rear of the left heel, the left knee slightly
bent, the body upright upon the right leg. At the command "attention," they
will raise the sword smartly, place the back of the blade against the
right shoulder, bring the right heel upon the line of the left, and stand
BEATING THE CALLS.
The drummer's call will be beaten by the drummer of the guard five minutes
before the time for beating the regular calls, when the drummer of
each company will take post on the color line, in front of his own
company's street. As soon as the beat begins on the right, it will
immediately be taken up along the line. For reveille and tattoo, however,
all the drums and fifes will assemble on the right of the color line,
and as the call is beaten, the field music will march through the different
For an hour previous to tattoo, the band will play in front of headquarters.