REVISED AND IMPROVED
BRIG. GEN. W. J. HARDEE, C. S. ARMY.
BY MAJOR-GENERAL SCOTT
EVOLUTIONS OF THE LINE
RIFLE AND INFANTRY TACTICS.
Formation of a Regiment in order of battle, or in line.
1. A regiment is composed of ten companies, which will habitually be posted from right to left, in the following order: first, sixth, fourth, ninth, third, eighth, fifth, tenth, seventh, second, according to the rank of captains.
2. With a less number of companies the same principle will be observed, viz.: the first captain will command the right company, the second captain the left company, the third captain the right center company, and so on.
3. The companies thus posted will be designated from right to left, first company, second company, &c. This designation will be observed in the manoeuvres.
4. The first two companies on the right, whatever their denomination, will form the first division; the next two companies the second division; and so on, to the left.
5. Each company will be divided into two equal parts, which will, be designated as the first and second platoon, counting from the right; and each platoon, in like manner, will be subdivided into two sections.
6. In all exercises and manoeuvres, every regiment, or part of a regiment, composed of two or more companies, will be designated as a battalion.
7. The color, with a guard to be hereinafter designated, will be posted on the left of the right centre battalion company. That company, and all on its right, will be denominated the right wing of the battalion; the remaining companies the left wing.
8. The formation of a regiment is in two ranks; and each company will be formed into two ranks, in the following manner: the corporals will be posted in the front rank, and on the right and left of platoons, according to height; the tallest corporal and the tallest man will form the first file, the next two tallest men will form the second file, and so on to the last file, which will be composed of the shortest corporal and the shortest man.
9. The odd and even files, numbered as one, two, in the company, from right to left, will form groups of four men, who will be designated comrades in battle.
10. The distance from one rank to another will be thirteen inches, measured from the breasts of the rear rank men to the backs or knapsacks of the front rank men.
11. For manoeuvring, the companies of a battalion will always be equalized, by transferring men from the strongest to the weakest companies.
12. The company officers and sergeants are nine in number, and will be posted in the following manner:
13. The captain on the right of the company touching with the left elbow.
14. The first sergeant in the rear rank, touching with the left elbow and covering the captain. In the manoeuvres he will be denominated covering sergeant, or right guide of the company.
15. The remaining officers and sergeants will be posted as file closers, and two paces behind the rear rank.
16. The first lieutenant, opposite the centre of the fourth section.
17. The second lieutenant, opposite the centre of the first platoon.
18. The third lieutenant, opposite the centre of the second platoon.
19. The second sergeant, opposite the second file from the left of the company. In the manoeuvres he will be designated left guide of the company.
20. The third sergeant, opposite the second file from the right of the second platoon.
21. The fourth sergeant, opposite the second file from the left of the first platoon.
22. The fifth sergeant, opposite the second file from the right of the first platoon.
23. In the left or tenth company of the battalion, the second sergeant will be posted in the front rank and on the left of the battalion.
24. The corporals will be posted in the front rank, as prescribed in No. 8.
25. Absent officers and sergeants will be replaced - officers by sergeants, and sergeants by corporals. The colonel may detach a first lieutenant from one company to command another, of which both the captain and first lieutenant are absent; but this authority will give no right to a lieutenant to demand to be so detached.
26. The field officers, colonel, lieutenant colonel and major are supposed to be mounted, and on active service shall be on horseback. The adjutant, when the battalion is manoeuvring, will be on foot.
27. The colonel will take post thirty paces in rear of the file closers, and opposite the centre of the battalion. This distance will be reduced whenever there is a reduction in the front of the battalion.
28. The lieutenant colonel and the major will be opposite the centres of the right and left wings respectively, and twelve paces in rear of the file closers.
29. The adjutant and sergeant major will be opposite the right and left of the battalion, respectively, and eight paces in rear of the file closers.
30. The adjutant and sergeant major will aid the lieutenant colonel and major, respectively, in the manoeuvres.
31. The colonel, if absent, will be replaced by the lieutenant colonel, and the latter by the major. If all the field officers be absent, the senior captain will command the battalion; but if either be present, he will not call the senior captain to act as field officer, except in care of evident necessity.
32. The quarter-master, surgeon, and other staff officers, in one rank, on the left of the colonel, and three paces in his rear.
33. The quarter-master sergeant, on a line with the front rank of the field music, and two paces on the right.
34. The buglers will be drawn up in four ranks, and posted twelve paces in rear of the file closers- the left opposite the centre of the left centre company. The senior principal musician will be two paces in front of the field music, and the other two paces in the rear.
35. The regimental band, if there be one, will be drawn up in two or four ranks, according to its numbers, and posted five paces in rear of the field music, having one of the principal musicians at its head.
36. In each battalion the color-guard will be composed of eight corporals, and posted on the left of the right centre company, of which company, for the time being, the guard will make a part.
37. The front rank will be composed of a sergeant, to be selected by the colonel, who will be called, for the time, color-bearer, with the two ranking corporals, respectively, on his right and left; the rear rank will be composed of the three corporals next inrank; and the three remaining corporals will be posted in their rear, and on the line of file closers. The left guide of the color-company, when these three last named corporals are in the rank of file closers, will be immediately on their left.
38. In battalions with less than five companies present, there will be no color-guard, and no display of colors, except it may be at reviews.
39. The corporals for the color-guard will be selected from those most distinguished for regularity and precision, as well in their positions under arms as in their marching. The latter advantage, and a just carriage of the person, are to be more particularly sought for in the selection of the color-bearer.
40. There will be two general guides in each battalion, selected, for the time, by the colonel, from among the sergeants (other than first sergeants) the most distinguished for carriage under arms, and accuracy in marching.
41. These sergeants will be respectively denominated, in the manoeuvres, right general guide, and left general guide, and be posted in the line of file closers; the first in rear of the right, and the second in rear of the left flank of the battalion.
Instruction of the Battalion.
42. Every commanding officer is responsible for the instruction of his command. He will assemble the officers together for theoretical and practical instruction as often as he may judge necessary, and when unable to attend to this duty in person, it will be discharged by the officer next in rank.
43. Captains will be held responsible for the theoretical and practical instruction of their non-commissioned officers, and the adjutant for the instruction of the non -commissioned staff. To this end, they will require these tactics to be studied and recited lesson by lesson; and when instruction is given on the ground, each non -commissioned officer, as he explains a movement, should be required to put it into practical operation.
44. The non-commissioned officers should also be practiced in giving commands. Each command, in a lesson at the theoretical instruction, should first be given by the instructor, and then repeated in succession, by the non-commissioned officers, so that while they become habituated to the commands, uniformity may be established in the manner of giving them.
45. In the school of the soldier, the company officers will be the instructors of the squads; but if there be not a sufficient number of company officers present, intelligent sergeants may be substituted; and two or three squads, under sergeant instructors, be superintended, at the same time, by an officer.
46. In the school of the company, the lieutenant-colonel and the major, under the colonel, will be the principal instructors, substituting frequently the captain of the company, and sometimes one of the lieutenants; the substitute, as far as practicable, being superintended by one of the principals.
47. In the school of the battalion, the brigadier general may constitute himself the principal instructor, frequently substituting the colonel of the battalion, sometimes the lieutenant colonel or major, and twice or thrice, in the same course of instruction, each of the three senior captains. In this school, also, the substitute will always, if practicable, be superintended by the brigadier general or the colonel, or (in case of a captain being the instructor), by the lieutenant colonel or major.
48. Individual instruction being the basis of the instruction of companies, on which that of the regiment depends, and the first principles having the greatest influence upon this individual instruction, classes of recruits should be watched with the greatest care.
49. Instructors will explain, in a few clear and precise words, the movement to be executed; and not to overburden the memory of the men, they will always use the same terms to explain the same principles.
50. They should often join example to precept, should keep up the attention of the men by an animated tone, and pass rapidly from one movement to another, as soon as that which they command has been executed in a satisfactory manner.
51. The bayonet should only be fixed when required to be used, either for attack or defense; the exercises and manoeuvres will be executed without the bayonet.
52. In the movements which require the bayonet to be fixed, the chief of the battalion will cause the signal to fix bayonet to be sounded; at this signal the men will fix bayonets without command, and immediately replace their pieces in the position they were before the signal.
53. The instruction of officers can be perfected only by joining theory to practice. The colonel will often practice them in marching and estimating distances, and be will carefully endeavor to cause them to take steps equal in length and swiftness. They will also be exercised in the double quick step.
54. The instruction of officers will include all the Titles in this system of drill, and such regulations as prescribe their duties in peace and war.
55. Every officer will make himself perfectly acquainted with the bugle signals; and should, by practice, be enabled, if necessary, to sound them. This knowledge, so necessary in general instruction, becomes of vital importance on actual service in the field.
56. As the discipline and efficiency of a company materially depend on the conduct and character of its sergeants, they should be selected with care, and properly instructed in all the duties appertaining to their rank.
57. Their theoretical instruction should include the School of the Soldier, the School of the Company, and the Drill for Skirmishers. They should likewise know all the details of service, and the regulations prescribing their duties in garrison and in campaign.
58. The captain selects from the corporals in his company those whom he judges fit to be admitted to the theoretical instruction of the sergeants.
59. Their theoretical instruction should include the School of the Soldier, and such regulations as prescribe their duties in garrison and in campaign.
60. The captain selects from his company a few privates, who may be admitted to the theoretical instruction of the corporals.
61. As the instruction of sergeants and corporals is intended principally to qualify them for the instruction of the privates, they should be taught not only to execute, but to explain intelligibly everything they may be required to teach.
There are three kinds.
62. The command of caution, which is attention.
63. The preparatory command, which indicates the movement which is to be executed.
64. The command of execution, such as march or halt, or, in the manual of arms, the part of command which causes an execution
65. The tone of the command should be animated, distinct, and of a loudness proportioned to the number of men under instruction.
66. The command attention is pronounced at the top of the voice, dwelling on the last syllable.
67. The command of execution will be pronounced in a tone firm and brief.
68. The commands of caution and the preparatory commands are herein distinguished by italics, those of execution by CAPITALS.
69. Those preparatory commands which, from their length, are difficult to be pronounced at once, must be divided into two or three parts, with an ascending progression in the tone of command, but always in such a manner that the tone of execution may be more energetic and elevated; the divisions are indicated by a hyphen. The parts of commands which are placed in a parenthesis, are not pronounced.