SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY.

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General Rules and Division of the School of the Company.

1. Instruction by company will always precede that by battalion, and the object being to prepare the soldiers for the higher school, the exercises of detail by company will be strictly adhered to, as well in respect to principles, as the order of progression herein proscribed.

2. There will be attached to a company undergoing elementary instruction, a captain, a covering sergeant, and a certain number of file closers, the whole posted in the manner indicated, Title First, and, according to the same title, the, officer charged with the exercise of such company will herein be denominated the instructor.

3. The School of the Company will be divided into six lessons, and each lesson will comprehend five articles, as follows:

4. The company will always be formed in two ranks. The instructor will then cause the files to be numbered, and for this purpose will command:

In each rank-Count Twos.

5. At this command, the men count in each rank, from right to left, pronouncing in a loud and distinct voice, in the same tone, without hurry and without turning the head, one, two, according to the place which each one occupies. He will also cause the company divided into platoons and sections, taking care that the first platoon is always composed of an even number of files.

6. The instructor will be as clear and concise as possible in his explanations; he will cause faults of detail to be rectified by the captain, to whom he will indicate them, if the captain should not have himself observed them; and the instructor will not otherwise interfere, unless the captain should not well comprehend, or should badly execute his intentions.

7. Composure, or presence of mind, in him who commands, and in those who obey, being the first means of order in a body of troops, the instructor will labor to habituate the company to this essential quality, and will himself give the example.

LESSON FIRST.

 ARTICLE FIRST.

To open ranks.

8. The company being at ordered arms, the ranks and file closers well aligned, when the instructor shall wish to cause the ranks to be opened, be will direct the left guide to place himself on the left of the front rank, which being executed, he will command:

1. Attention. 2. Company. 3. Shoulder-ARMS. 4. To the rear open order.

9. At the fourth command, the covering sergent, and the left guide, will step off smartly to the rear, four paces from the front rank, in order to mark the alignment of the rear rank. They will judge this distance by the eye, without counting the steps.

10. The instructor will place himself at the same time on the right flank, in order to observe if these two non-commissioned officers are on a line parallel to the front rank, and if necessary, to correct their positions, which being executed, he will command:

5. MARCH.

11. At this command, the front rank will stand fast.

12. The rear rank will step to the rear, without counting the steps, and will place themselves on the alignment marked for this rank, conforming to what is prescribed in the school of the soldier, No. 321.

13. The covering sergeant will align the rear rank on the left guide placed to mark the left of this rank.

14. The file closers will march to the rear at the same time with the rear rank, and will place themselves two paces from this rank when it is aligned.

15. The instructor seeing the rear rank aligned, will command:

6. FRONT.

16. At this command, the sergeant on the left of the rear rank will return to his place as a file closer.

17. The rear rank being aligned, the instructor will direct the captain and the covering sergeant to observe the men in their respective ranks, and to correct, if necessary, the positions of persons and pieces.

ARTICLE SECOND.

Alignments in open ranks.

18. The ranks being open, the instructor will, in the first exercises, align the ranks, man by man the better to inculcate the principles.

19. To effect this, he will cause two or four men on the right or left of each rank to march two or three paces forward, and, after having aligned them, command:

By file right (or left)-DRESS.

20. At this, the men of each rank will move up successively on the alignment, each man being preceded by his neighbor in the same rank, towards the basis, by two paces, and having correctly aligned himself, will cast his eyes to the front

21. Successive alignments having habituated the soldiers to dress correctly, the instructor will cause the ranks to align themselves at once, forward and backward, sometimes in a direction parallel, and sometimes in one oblique, to the original direction, giving, in each case, two or four men to serve as a basis of alignment to each rank. To effect which, he will command:

1. Right (or left)- DRESS. 2. FRONT.

        or

1. Right (or left) backward- DRESS 2. FRONT.

22. In oblique alignments, in opened ranks, the men of the rear rank will not seek to cover their file leaders, as the sole object of the exercise is to teach them to align themselves correctly in their respective ranks, in the different directions.

23. In the several alignments, the captain will superintend the front rank, and the covering sergeant the rear rank. For this purpose, they will place themselves on the side by which the ranks are dressed.

24. In oblique alignments, the men will conform the line of their shoulders to the new direction of their rank, and will place themselves on the alignment as has been prescribed in the school of the soldier, No. 317 or No. 321, according as the new direction shall be in front or rear of the original one.

25. At the end of each alignment, the captain and the covering sergeant will pass along the front of the ranks to correct the positions of persons and arms.

ARTICLE THIRD.

Manual of arms.

26. The ranks being open, the instructor will place himself in a position to see the ranks, and will command the manual of arms in the following order:

Present arms.

Order arms. 

Ground arms.

Raise arms. 

Support arms.

Fix bayonet.

Charge bayonet.

Trail arms.

Unfix bayonet.

Secure arms.

Shoulder arms.

Shoulder arms.

Shoulder arms.

Shoulder arms.

Shoulder arms.

Shoulder arms.

Shoulder arms.

Shoulder arms.

Load in nine times.

27. The instructor will take care that the position of the body, of the feet, and of the piece, be always exact, and that the times be briskly executed and close to the person.

ARTICLE FOURTH.

To close ranks.

26. The manual of arms being ended, the instructor will command:

1. Close order. 2. MARCH.

29. At the command march, the rear rank will close up in quick time, each man directing himself on his file leader.

ARTICLE V.

Alignments, and manual of arms in closed ranks.

30. The ranks being closed, the instructor will cause to be executed parallel and oblique alignments by the right and left, forward and backward, observing to place always two or four files to serve as a basis of alignment. He will give the commands prescribed, No. 21.

31. In alignments in closed ranks, the captain will superintend the front rank, and the covering sergeant the rear rank. They will habituate themselves to judge the alignment by the lines of the eyes and shoulders, in casting a glance of the eye along the front and rear of the ranks.

32. The moment the captain perceives the greater number 'of the front rank aligned, he will command FRONT, and rectify, afterwards, if necessary, the alignment of the other men by the means prescribed in the school of the soldier, No. 320. The rear rank will conform to the alignment of the front rank, superintended by the covering sergeant.

33. The ranks being steady, the instructor will place himself on the flank to verify their alignment. He will also see that each rear rank man covers accurately his file leader.

34. In oblique alignments, the instructor will observe what is prescribed No. 24.

35. In all alignments, the file closers will preserve the distance of two paces from the rear rank.

36. The alignments being ended, the instructor will cause to be executed the manual of arms.

37. The instructor, wishing to rest the men, without deranging the alignment, will first cause arms to be supported, or ordered, and then command:

In place-REST.

38. At this command, the men will no longer be constrained to preserve silence or steadiness of position; but they will always keep one or other heel on the alignment.

39. If, on the contrary, the instructor should wish to rest the men without constraining them to preserve the alignment, he will command:

REST.

40. At which command, the men will not be required to preserve immobility, or to remain in their places.

41. The instructor may, also, when he shall judge proper, cause arms to be stacked, which will be executed as prescribed, school of the soldier.

LESSON SECOND.

42. The instructor, wishing to pass to the second lesson, will cause the company to take arms, if stacks have been formed, and command:    

1. Attention 2. Company 3 Shoulder- ARMS.

43. The instructor will then cause loadings and firings to be executed in the following order:

ARTICLE FIRST.

 To load at four times and at willl.

44. Loading in four times will be commanded and executed as prescribed in the school of the soldier, No. 251, and following. The instructor will cause this exercise to be often repeated, in succession, before passing to load at will.

45 Loading at will will be commanded and executed as prescribed in the school of the soldier, No 256. In priming when loading in four times, and also at will, the captain and covering sergeant will half face to the  right with the men, and face to the front when the man next to them, respectively brings his piece to the shoulder.

46. The instructor will labor to the utmost to cause the men, in the different loadings, to execute what has been prescribed in the school of the soldier Nos. 257 and 258.

47. Loading at will, being that of battle, and consequently the one with which it is most important to render the men familiar, it will claim preference in the exercises the moment the men be well established in the principles. To these they will be brought by degrees, so that every man may be able to load with cartridges, and to fire at least three rounds in a minute with ease and regularity

ARTICLE SECOND.

 To fire by company.

48. The instructor, wishing to cause the live by company to be executed, will command:

1. Fire by Company. 2. Commence firing.

49. At the first command, the captain will promptly place himself opposite the centre of his company, and four paces in rear of the line of file closers: the covering sergeant will retire to that line, and  place himself opposite to his interval. This rule is general for both the captain; and covering sergeant in all the different firings.

50. At the second command the captain will add:

 1. Company; 2. READY 3. AIM; 4. FIRE; 5. LOAD.

51. At the command load, the men will load their pieces and then take the position of ready, as prescribed in the school of the soldier

52. The captain will immediately recommence the firing by the commands:

1 Company. 2. AIM, 3. FIRE. 4. LOAD.

53. The firing will be thus continued until the signal to cease firing is sounded.

54. The captain will sometimes cause aim to be taken to the right and left, simply observing to pronounce right (or left) oblique, before the command aim.

ARTICLE THIRD.

 The fire by file.

55. The instructor wishing to cause the fire by file to be executed, will command

1. Fire by file. 2. Company. 3; READY. 4. Commence firing.

56. The third and fourth commands will be executed as prescribed in the school of the soldier, No. 275 and following.

57. The fire will be commenced by the right file of the company; the next file will take aim at the instant the first brings down pieces to re-load, and so on to the left; but this progression will only be observed in the first discharge, after which each man will re-load and fire without regulating himself by others, conforming himself to what is prescribed in the school of the soldier, No. 280.

ARTICLE FOURTH.

 The fire by rank.

58. The instructor wishing the fire by rank to be executed, will command:

1. Fire by rank. 2. Company. 3. READY. 4. Rear rank- AIM. 5. FIRE. 6. LOAD.

59. The fifth and sixth commands will be executed as is prescribed in the school of the soldier, No. 285 and following.

60. When the instructor sees one or two pieces in the rear rank at a ready, he will command:

1. Front rank. 2. Aim. 3. FIRE 4. LOAD.

61. The firing will be continued thus by alternate ranks, until the signal is given to cease firing.

62. The instructor will sometimes cause aim to be taken to the right and left, conforming to what is prescribed No. 54.

63. The instructor will cause the firing to cease, whether by company, by file, or by rank, by sounding the signal to cease firing and at the instant this sound commences, the men will cease to fire, conforming to what is prescribed in the school of the soldier, No. 282.

64. The signal to cease firing will always be followed by a bugle note; at which sound, the captain and covering sergeant will promptly resume their places in line, and will rectify, if necessary, the alignment of the ranks.

65. In this school, except when powder is used, the signal, to cease firing will be indicated by the command cease firing, which, will be pronounced by the instructor when he wishes the semblance of firing to cease.

66. The command posts will be likewise substituted, under similar circumstances, for the bugle note employed as the signal for the return of the captain and covering sergeant to their places in line which command will be given when the instructor sees the men have brought their pieces to a shoulder.

67. The fire by file being that which is most frequently used against an enemy, it is highly important that it be rendered perfectly familiar to the troops. The instructor will, therefore, give it almost exclusive preference, and labor to cause the men to aim with care, and always, if possible, at some particular object. As it is of the utmost importance that the men should aim with precision in battle, this principle will be rigidly enforced in the exercises for the purposes of instruction.

ARTICLE FIFTH.

 To fire by the rear rank.

68. The instructor will cause the several fires to be executed to the rear, that is, by the rear rank. To effect this, he will command:

1. Face by the rear rank. 2. Company. 3. About-FACE.

69. At the first command, the captain will step out and place himself near to, and facing the right file of his company; the covering sergeant, and file closers, will pass quickly through the captain's interval, and place themselves faced to the rear, the covreign sergeant a pace behind the captain, and the file closers two paces from the front rank opposite to their places in line, each passing behind the covering sergeant.

70. It the third command, which will be given at the instant the last file closer shall have passed through the interval, the company will face about; the captain will place himself in his interval in the rear rank, now become the front, and the covering sergeant will cover him in the front rank, now become the rear.

71. The company having faced by the rear rank, the instructor Will cause it to execute the fire by company, both direct and oblique, the fire by file, and the fire by rank, by the commands and means prescribed in the three preceding articles; the captain, covering sergeant, and the men will conform themselves, in like manner, to what is therein prescribed.

72. The fire by file will commence on the left of the company, now become the right. In the fire by rank, the firing will commence with the front rank, now become the rear.

73. To resume the proper front, the instructor will command:

1. Face by the front rank. 2. Company. 3. About-FACE.

74. At the first command, the captain covering sergeant and file closers will conform to what is prescribed Nos. 60 and 70.

75. At the third command, the company having faced about, the captain and covering sergeant will resume their places in line.

76. In this lesson, the instructor will impress on the men the importance of aiming always at some particular object, and of holding the piece as prescribed in the school of the soldier, No. 178.

77. The instructor will recommend to the captain to make a short pause between the commands aim and fire, to give the men time to aim with accuracy.

78. The instructor will place himself in position to see the two ranks, in order to detect faults; he will charge the captain and file closers to be equally watchful, and to report to him when the ranks are at rest. He will remand, for individual instruction, the man who may be observed to load badly.

79. The instructor will recommend to the soldiers, in the firings, the highest degree of composure or presence of mind; he will neglect nothing that may contribute to this end.

80. He will give to the men, as a general principle, to maintain, in the direct fire, the left heel in its place, in order that the alignment of the ranks and files may not be deranged; and he will verify, by examination, after each exercise in firing, the observance of this principle.

81. The instructor will observe, in addition to these remarks, all those which follow:

82. When the firing is executed with cartridges, it is particularly recommended that the men observe, in uncocking, whether smoke escapes from the tube, which is a certain indication that the piece has been discharged; but if, on the contrary, no smoke escapes, the soldier, in such case, instead of reloading, will pick and prime again. If, believing the load to be discharged, the soldier should put a second cartridge in his piece, he ought, at least, to perceive it in ramming, by the height of the load; and he would be very culpable should he put in a third. The instructor will always cause arms to be inspected after firing with cartridges, in order to observe if the fault has been committed, of putting three cartridges, without a discharge, in the same piece, in which case the ball screw will be applied.

83. It sometimes happens when a cap has missed fire, that -the tube is found stopped up with a hard, white, and compact powder; in this case, picking will be dispensed with, and a new cap substituted for the old one.

LESSON THIRD.

ARTICLE FIRST.

To advance in line of battle.

84. The company being in line of battle" and correctly aligned, when the instructor shall wish to exercise it in marching by the front, he will assure himself that the shoulders of the captain and covering sergeant are perfectly in the direction of their respective ranks, and that the sergeant accurately covers the captain; the instructor will then place himself twenty-five or thirty paces in front of them, face to the rear, and place himself exactly on the prolongation  of the line passing between their heels.

85. The instructor, being aligned on the directing file, will command:

1. Company, forward.

86. At this, a sergeant, previously designated, will move six paces in advance of the captain: the instructor, from the position prescribed, will correctly align this sergeant on the prolongation of the directing file.

87. This advanced sergeant, who is to be charged with the direction, will, the moment his position is assured, take two points on the ground in the straight line which would pass between his own and the heels of the instructor.

88. These dispositions being made, the instructor will step aside, and command:

2. MARCH.

89. At this, the company will step off with life. The directing sergeant will observe with the greatest precision, the, length and cadence of the step, marching on the two points he has chosen; he will take in succession, and always a little before arriving at the point nearest to him, new points in advance, exactly in the same line with the first two, and at the distance of some, fifteen or twenty paces from each other. The captain will march steadily in the trace of the directing sergeant, keeping always six paces from him; the men will each maintain the head direct to the front, feel lightly the elbow of his neighbor on the side of direction, and conform himself to the principles prescribed, school of the soldier, for the march by front.

90. The man next to the captain will take special care not to pass him; to this end, he will keep the line of his shoulders a little in the rear, but in the, same direction with those of the captain.

91. The file closers will march at the habitual distance of two paces behind the rear rank.

92. If the men lose the step, the instructor will command;

To the-STEP.

93. At this command, the men will glance towards the directing sergeant, retake the step from him, and again direct their eyes to the front.

94. The instructor will cause the captain and covering sergeant to be posted sometimes on the right, and sometimes on the left of the company.

95. The directing sergeant, in advance, having the greatest influence on the march of the company, he will be selected for the precision of his step, his habit of maintaining his shoulders in a square with a given line of direction, and of prolonging that line without variation.

96. If this sergeant should fail to observe these principles, undulations in the front of the company must necessarily follow; the men will be unable to contract the habit of taking steps equal in length and swiftness, and of maintaining their shoulders in a square with the line of direction-the only means of attaining perfection in the march in line.

97. The instructor, with a view the better to establish the men in the length and cadence of the step, and in the principles of the march in line, will cause the company to advance three or four hundred paces, at once, without halting if the ground will permit.  In the first exercises, he will march the company with open ranks, the better to observe the two ranks.

98. The instructor will see, with care that all the principles of the march in line are strictly observed; he will generally be on the directing flank, in a position to observe the two ranks and the faults they may commit; he will sometimes halt, behind the directing file during some thirty successive steps, in order to judge whether the directing sergeant or the directing file, deviate from the perpendicular.

ARTICLE SECOND.

 To halt the company marching in line of battle, and to align it.

99. The instructor, wishing to halt the company will command:

1. Company. HALT.

100. At the second command, the company will halt; the directing sergeant will remain in advance unless ordered to return to the line of file closers. The company being at a halt the instructor may advance the first three or four files on the side of direction and align the company on that basis, or he any confine himself to causing the alignment to be rectified. In this last case, he will command: Captain, rectify the alignment.  The captain will direct the covering sergeant to attend to the rear rank, when each, glancing his eyes along his rank, will promptly rectify it, conforming to what is prescribed in the school of the soldier No. 320.

ARTICLE THIRD.

Oblique march in line of battle.

101. The company being in the direct march, when the instructor shall wish to cause it to march obliquely, he will command:

1. Right (or left) oblique. 2. MARCH.

102. At the command march, the company will take the oblique step. The men will accurately observe the principles prescribed in the school of the soldier, No. 331. The rear rank men will preserve their distances, and march in rear of the man next on the right (or left) of their habitual file leaders.

103. When the instructor wishes the direct march to he resumed he will command:

1. Forward. 2. MARCH.

104. At the command march, the company will resume the direct march. The instructor will move briskly twenty paces in front of the captain, and facing the company, will place himself exactly in the prolongation of the captain and covering sergeant; and then by a sign, will move the directing sergeant on the same line, if he be not already on it; the latter will immediately take two points on the ground between himself and the instructor, and as he advances, will take new points of direction, as is explained No. 89.

105. In the oblique march, the men not having the touch of elbows, the guide will always be on the side toward which the oblique is made, without  any indication to that effect being given ; and when the direct match is resumed, the guide will be, equally without indication, on the side where it was previous to the oblique.

106. The instructor will, at first, cause the oblique to be made toward the side of the guide. He will also direct the captain to have an eye on the directing sergeant, in order to keep on the same perpendicular line to the front with him, while following a parallel direction.

107. During the continuance of the march, the instructor will be watchful that the men follow parallel directions, in conforming to the principles prescribed in the school of the soldier, for preserving the general alignment; whenever the men lose the alignment, he will be careful that they regain it by lengthening or shortening the step, without altering the cadence, or changing the direction.

108. The instructor will place himself in front of the company and face to it, in order to regulate the march of the directing sergeant or the man who is on the flank toward which the oblique is made, and to see that the principles of the march are properly observed, and that the files do not crowd.

ARTICLE FOURTH.

To mark time, to march in double quick time, and the back step.

109. The company being in the direct march, and in quick time, the instructor, to cause it to mark time, will command:

1. Mark time. 2. MARCH.

110. To resume the march, he will command:

1. Forward. 2. MARCH.

111. To cause the march in double quick time, the instructor will command:

1. Double quick. 2. MARCH.

112. The command march will be pronounced at the instant either foot is coming to the ground.

113. To resume quick time, the instructor will command:

1. Quick time. 2. MARCH.

114. The command march will be pronounced at the instant either foot is coming to the ground.

115. The company being at a halt, the instructor may cause it to march in the back step; to this effect, he will command:

1. Company backward. 2. MARCH.

116. The back step will be executed according to the principles prescribed in the school of the soldier, No. 247, but the use of it being rare, the instructor will not cause more than fifteen or twenty steps to be taken in succession, and to that extent but seldom.

117. The instructor ought not to exercise the company in marching in double quick time till the men are well established in the length and swiftness of the pace in quick time; he will then endeavor to render the march of one hundred and sixty-five steps in the minute equally easy and familiar, and also cause them to observe the same erectness of body and composure of mind, as if marching in quick time.

118. When marching in double quick time, if a subdivision (in a column) has to change direction by turning, or has to form into line, the men will quicken the pace to one hundred and eighty steps in a minute. The same swiftness of step will be observed under all circumstances where great rapidity of movement is required. But, as ranks of men cannot march any length of time at so swift a rate, without breaking or confusion, this acceleration will not be considered a prescribed exercise, and accordingly companies or battalions will only be habitually exercised in the double quick time of one hundred and sixty-five steps in the minute.

ARTICLE FIFTH.

 To march in retreat.

119. The company being halted and correctly aligned, when the instructor shall wish to cause it to march in retreat, he will command:

1. Company. 2. About-FACE.

120. The company having faced to the rear, the instructor will place himself in front of the directing file, conforming to what is prescribed, No. 84.

121. The instructor, being correctly established on the prolongation of the directing file, will command:

3. Company, forward.

122. At this, the directing sergeant will conform himself to what is prescribed Nos. 86 and 87, with this difference-he will place himself six paces in front of the line of file closers, now leading.

123. The covering sergeant will step into the line of file closers, opposite to his interval, and the captain will place himself in the rear rank, now become the front.

124. This disposition being promptly made, the instructor will command:

4. MARCH.

125. At this, the directing sergeant, the captain, and the men, will conform themselves to what is prescribed No. 89, and following.

126. The instructor will cause to be executed, marching in retreat, all that is prescribed for marching in advance; the commands and the means of execution will be the same.

127. The instructor having halted the company, will, when he may wish, cause it to face to the front by the commands prescribed No. 119. The captain, the covering sergeant, and the directing sergeant, will resume their habitual places in line, the moment they shall have faced about.

128. The company being in march by the front rank, if the instructor should wish it to march in retreat, he will cause the right about to be executed while marching, and to this effect will command:

1. Company. 2 Right about. 3. MARCH.

129. At the third command, the company will promptly face about, and recommence the march arch by the rear rank.

130. The directing sergeant will face about with the company, and will move rapidly six paces in front of the file closers, and upon the prolongation of the guide. The instructor will place him in the proper direction by the means prescribed No. 104. The captain, the covering sergeant, and the men, will conform to the principles prescribed for the march in retreat.

131. When the instructor wishes the company to match by the front rank, he will give the same commands, and will regulate the direction of the march by the same means.

132. The instructor will cause to be executed in double quick time, all the movements prescribed in the 3d, 4th, 5th and 6th lessons of this school, with the exception of the march backwards, which will be executed only in quick time. He will give the same commands, observing to add double quick before the command march.

133. When the pieces are carried on the right shoulder, in quick time, the distance between the ranks will be sixteen inches. Whenever, therefore, the instructor brings the company from a shoulder to this position, the rear rank must shorten a little the first steps in order to gain the prescribed distance, and will lengthen the steps, on the contrary, in order to close up when the pieces are again brought to a shoulder. In marching in double quick time the distance between the ranks will be twenty-six inches, and the pieces will be carried habitually on the right shoulder.

134, Whenever a company is halted, the man wilt bring their pieces at once to a shoulder at the command halt. The rear rank will close to its proper distance. These rules are general.

LESSON FOURTH.

ARTICLE FIRST.

To march by the flank.

135. The company being in line of battle, and at a halt, when the instructor shall wish to cause it to march by the right flank, he will command:

1.Company, right-FACE. 2. Forward. 3. MARCH.

136. At the first command, the company will face to the right, the covering sergeant will place himself at the head of the front rank the captain having stepped out for the purpose, so, far as to find, himself by the side of the sergeant, and on his left; the front rank will double as is prescribed in the school of the soldier No. 352; the rear rank will, at the same time, side step to the right one pace, and double in the same manner; go that when the movement is completed, the files will be formed of four men aligned, and elbow to elbow. The intervals will be preserved.

137. The file closers will also move by side step to the right, so that when the ranks are formed, they will be two paces from the rearmost rank.

138. At the command march, the company will move off briskly in quick time; the covering sergeant at the head of the front rank; and the captain on his left, will march straight forward. The men of each file will march abreast of their respective front rank men, heads direct to the front; the file closers will march opposite their places in line of battle.

139. The instructor will cause the principles of the march by the flank to be observed, in placing himself pending on the march, as prescribed in the school of the soldier, No. 357.

140. The instructor will cause the march by the left flank to be executed by the same commands, substituting left for right; the ranks will double as has been prescribed in the school for the soldier, No. 354; the rear rank will side-step to the left one pace before doubling.

141. At the instant the company faces to the left, the left guide will place himself at the head of the front rank; the captain will pass rapidly to the left, and place himself by the right side of this guide; the covering sergeant will replace the captain in the front rank, the moment the latter quits it to go to the left.

ARTICLE SECOND.

To change direction by file.

142. The company being faced by the flank, and either in march, or at a halt, when the instructor shall wish to cause it to wheel by file, he will command:

1.By file, left, (or right). 2. MARCH.

143. At the command march, the first file will wheel; if to the side of the front rank man, the latter will take care not to turn at once, but to describe a short are of a circle, shortening a little the first five or six steps in order to give time to the fourth man of this file to conform himself to the movement. If the wheel be to the side of the rear rank, the front rank man will wheel in the step of twenty-eight inches, and the fourth man will conform himself to the movement by describing a short are of a circle as has been explained. Each file will come to wheel on the same ground where that which preceded it wheeled.

144. The instructor will see that the wheel be executed according to these principles, in order that the distance between the files may always be preserved, and that there be no check or hindrance at the wheeling point.

ARTICLE THIRD.

To halt the company marching by the flank, and to face it to the front. 

145. To effect these objects, the instructor will command:

1. Company. 2. HALT. 3. FRONT.

146. The second and third commands will be executed as proscribed in the school of the soldier, Nos. 359 and 360. As soon as the files have undoubled, the rear rank will close to its proper distance. The captain and covering sergeant, as well as the left guide, if the march be by the left flank, will return to their habitual places in line at the instant the company faces to the front.

147. The instructor may then align the company by one of the means prescribed, No. 100.

ARTICLE FOURTH.

The company being in march by the flank, to form it on the right (or left) by file into line of battle.

148. If the company be marching by the right flank, the instructor will command:

1.On the right, by file into line. 2. MARCH.

149. At the command march, the rear rank men doubled will mark time; the captain and the covering sergeant will turn to the right, march straight forward, and be halted by the instructor when they shall have passed at least six paces beyond the rank of file closers; the captain will place himself correctly on the line of battle, and will direct the alignment as the men of the front rank successively arrive; the covering sergeant will place himself behind the captain at the distance of the rear rank; the two men on the right of the front rank doubled, will continue to march, and passing beyond the covering sergeant and the captain, will turn to the right; after turning, they will continue to march elbow to elbow, and direct themselves towards the line of battle, but when they shall arrive at two paces from this line, the even number will shorten the step so that the odd number may precede him on the line, the odd number placing himself by the side and on the left of the captain; the even number will afterwards oblique to the left, and place himself on the left of the odd number; the next two men of the front rank doubled, will pass in the same manner behind the two first, turn then to the right, and place themselves, acccording to the means just explained, to the left, and by the side of, the two men already established on the line; the remaining files of this rank will follow in succession, and be formed to the left in the same manner. The rear rank doubled will execute the movement in the manner already explained for the front rank, taking care not to commence the movement until four men of the front rank are established on the line of battle; the rear rank men, as they arrive on the line, will cover accurately their file leaders.

150. If the company be marching by the left flank, the instructor Will cause it to form by file on the left into line of battle, according to the same principles and by the same commands, substituting the indication left for right. In this case, the odd numbers will shorten the step, so that the even numbers may precede them on the line. The captain, placed on the left of the front rank, and the left guide, will return to their places in line of battle, by order of the instructor, after the company shall be formed and aligned.

151. To enable the, men the better to comprehend the mechanism of this movement, the instructor will at first cause it to be executed separately by each rank doubled, and afterwards by the two ranks united and doubled.

152. The instructor will place himself on the line of battle, and without the point where, the right or left is to rest, in order to establish the base of the alignment, and afterwards, he will follow up the movement to assure himself that each file conforms itself to what is prescribed No. 149.

ARTICLE FIFTH.

The company being in march by the flank, to form it by company, or by platoon, into line, and to cause it to face to the right and left in marching. 

153. The company being in march by the right flank, the instructor will order the captain to form it into line; the captain will immediately command: 1. By company, into line. 2. MARCH. 

154. At the command march, the covering sergeant will continue to march straight forward; the men will advance the right shoulder, take the double quick step, and move into line, by the shortest route, taking care to undouble the files, and to come on the line one after the other.

155. As the front rank men successively arrive in line with the covering sergeant, they will take from him the step, and then turn their eyes to the front.

156. The men of the rear rank will conform to the movements of their respective file leaders, but without endeavoring to arrive in line at the same time with the latter

157. At the instant the movement begins, the captain will face to his company in order to follow up the execution; and, as soon as, the company is formed, he will command, guide left, place himself two paces before the centre, face to the front, and take the step of the company.

158. At the command guide left, the second sergeant will promptly place himself in the front rank, on the left, to serve as guide, and the covering sergeant who is on the opposite flank will remain there.

159. When the company marches by the left flank, this movement will be executed by the same commands, and according to the same principles; the company being formed, the captain will command guide right, and place himself in front of his company as above; the covering sergeant who is on the right of the front rank will serve as guide, and the second sergeant placed on the left flank will remain there.

160. Thus, in a column by company, right or left in front, the covering sergeant and the second sergeant of each company will always to placed on the right and left, respectively, of the front rank; they will be denominated right guide and left guide, and the one or the other charged with the direction.

161. The company being in march by the flank, if it be the wish of the instructor to cause it to form platoons, he will give an order to that effect to the captain, who will command:

1. By platoon, into line. 2. MARCH.

162. The movement will be executed by each platoon according to the above principles. The captain will place himself before the centre of the first platoon, and the first lieutenant before the centre of the second, passing through the opening made in the centre of the company, if the march be by the right flank, and around the left of his platoon, it the march be by the left; in this last case the captain will also pass around the left of the second platoon in order to place himself in front of the first. Both the captain and lieutenant, without waiting for each other, will command guide left (or right), at the instant their respective platoons are formed.

163. At the command guide left (or right) the guide of each platoon will pass rapidly to the indicated flank of the platoon, if not already there.

164. The right guide of the company will always serve as the guide of the right or left of the first platoon, and the left guide of the company will serve, in like manner, as the guide of the second platoon.

165. Thus in a column, by platoon, there will be but one guide to each platoon; he will always be placed on its left flank, if the right be in front, and on the right flank, if the left be in front.

166. In these movements, the file closers will follow the platoons to which they are attached.

167. The instructor may cause the company, marching by the flank, to form by company, or by platoon, into line, by his own direct commands, using those prescribed for the captain, No. 153 or 161.

168. The instructor will exercise the company in passing, without a halt, from the march by the front, to the march by the flank, and reciprocally. In either case, he will employ the commands prescribed in the school of the soldier, No. 363, substituting company for squad. The company will face to the right or left, in marching, and the captain, the guides, and file closers will conform themselves to what is prescribed for each in the march by the flank, or in the march by the front of a company supposed to be a subdivision of a column.

169. If, after facing to the right or left, in marching, the company find itself faced by the rear rank, the captain will place himself two paces behind the center of the front rank, now in the rear, the guides will pass to the rear rank, now leading, and the file closers will march in front of this rank.

170. The instructor, in order to avoid fatiguing the men, and to prevent them from being negligent in the position of shoulder arms, will sometimes order support arms in marching by the flank, and. arms on the right shoulder, when marching in line.

LESSON FIFTH. 

ARTICLE FIRST.

To break into column by platoon, either at a halt or in march.

171. The company being at a halt, in line of battle, the instructor, wishing to break it into column, by platoon to the right, will command:

1. By platoon, right wheel. 2. MARCH.

172. At the first command, the chiefs of platoon will place themselves rapidly two paces before the centers of their respective platoons, the lieutenant passing around the left of the company. They need not occupy themselves with dressing, one upon the other. The covering sergeant will replace the captain in the front rank.

173. At the command march, the right front rank man of each platoon will face to the right, the covering sergeant standing fast; the chief of each platoon will move quickly by the shortest line, a little beyond the point at which the marching flank will rest when the wheel shall be completed, face to the late rear, and place himself so that the line which he forms with the man on the right (who had faced,) shall be perpendicular to that occupied by the company in line of battle; each platoon will wheel according to the principles prescribed for the wheel on a fixed pivot, and when the man who conducts the marching flank shall approach to near to the perpendicular, its chief will command:

1. Platoon. 2. HALT.

174. At the command halt, which will be given at the instant the man who conducts the marching flank shall have arrived at three paces from the perpendicular, the platoon will halt; the covering sergeant will move to the point where the left of the first platoon is to rest, passing by the front rank; the second sergeant will place himself, in like manner, in respect to the second platoon. Each will take care to leave between himself and the man on the right of his platoon, a space equal to its front; the captain and first lieutenant will look to this, and each take care to align the sergeant between himself and the man of the platoon who had faced to the right.

175. The guide of each platoon being thus established on the perpendicular, each chief will place himself two paces outside of is guide, and facing towards him, will command:

3. Left-DRESS.

176. The alignment being ended, each chief of platoon will command, FRONT, and place himself two paces before its centre.

177. The file closers will conform themselves to the movement of their respective platoons, preserving always the distance of two paces from the rear rank.

178. The company will break by platoon to the left, according to the same principles. The instructor will command:

1. By platoon, left wheel. 2. MARCH.

179. The first command will be executed in the same manner as if breaking by platoon to the right.

180. At the command march, the left front rank man of each platoon will face to the left, and the platoons will wheel to the left, according to the principles prescribed for the wheel on a fixed pivot; the chiefs of platoon will conform to the principles indicated Nos. 173 and 174.

181. At the command halt, given by the chief of each platoon, the covering sergeant on the right of the front rank of the first platoon, and the second sergeant near the left of the second platoon, will each move to the points where the right of his platoon is to rest. The chief of each platoon should be careful to align the sergeant between himself and the man of the platoon who had faced to the left, and will then command:

Right-DRESS.

182. The platoons being aligned, each chief of platoon will command, FRONT, and place himself opposite its centre.

183. The instructor wishing to break the company by platoon to the right and to move the column forward after the wheel is completed, will caution the company to that effect, and command:

1. By platoon, right wheel. 2. MARCH.

184. At the first command, the chiefs of platoon will move rapidly in front of their respective platoons, conforming to what has been prescribed No. 172, and will remain in this position during the continuance of the wheel. The covering sergeant will replace the chief of the first platoon in the front rank.

185. At the command march, the platoons will wheel to the right, conforming to the principles herein prescribed; the man on the pivot will not face to the right, but will mark time, conforming himself to the movement of the marching flank; and when the man who is on the left of this flank shall arrive near the perpendicular, the instructor will command:

3. Forward. 4. MARCH. 5. Guide left.

186. At the fourth command, which will be given at the instant the wheel is completed, the platoons will move straight to the front, all the men taking the step of twenty-eight inches. The covering sergeant and the second sergeant will move rapidly to the left of their respective platoons, the former passing before the front rank. The leading guide will immediately take points on the ground in the direction which may be indicated to him by the instructor.

187. At the fifth command, the men will take the touch of elbows lightly to the left.

188. If the guide of the second platoon should lose his distance, or the line of direction, he will conform to the principles herein prescribed, Nos. 202 and 203.

189. If the company be marching in line to the front, the instructor will cause it to break by platoon to the right by the same commands. At the command march, the platoons will wheel in the manner already explained, the man on the pivot will take care to mark time in his place, without advancing or receding; the instructor, the chiefs of platoon, and the guides, will conform to what has been prescribed Nos. 184 and following.

190. The company may be broken by platoons to the left, according to the same principles, and by inverse means, the instructor giving the commands prescribed Nos. 183 and 185, substituting left for right, and reciprocally

191. The movements explained in Nos. 183 and 189 will only be executed after the company has become well established in the principles of the march in column, Articles Second and Third.

Remarks.

192. The instructor, placed in front of the company, will observe whether the movement be executed according to the principles prescribed above; whether the platoons, after breaking into column, are perpendicular to the line of battle just occupied; and whether the guide, who placed himself where the marching flank of his platoon had to rest, has left, between himself and the front rank man on the right (or left), the space necessary to contain the front of the platoon.

193. After the platoons have broken, if the rearmost guard should not accurately cover the leading one, be will not seek to correct his position till the column be put in march, unless the instructor, wishing to wheel immediately into line, should think it necessary to rectify the direction of the guides, which would be executed as will be hereinafter explained in Article Fifth of this lesson.

194. The instructor will observe, that the man on the right or left) of each platoon, who, at the command march, faces to go right (or left) being the true pivot of the wheel, the front rank man next to him ought to gain it little ground to the front in wheeling, so as clear the pivot-man.

ARTICLE SECOND.

To march in column.

195. The company having broken by platoon, right (or left) in front, the instructor, wishing to cause the column to march, will throw himself twenty-five or thirty paces in front, face to the guides, place himself correctly, on their direction, and caution the leading guide to take points on the ground.

196. The instructor being thus placed, the guide of the leading platoon will take two points on the ground in the straight line passing between his own and the heels of his instructor.

197. These dispositions being made, the instructor will step aside and command:

1.Column, forward. 2. Guide left (or right). 3. MARCH.

198. At the command march, promptly repeated by the chiefs of platoon, they, as well as the guides, will lead off, by a decided step, their respective platoons in order that the whole may move smartly, and at the same moment.

199. The men will each feel lightly the elbow of his neighbor toward the guide, and conform himself, in marching, to the principles prescribed in the school of the soldier, No. 327. The man next to the guide, in each platoon, will take care never to pass him, and also to march always about six inches to the right (or left) from him, in order not to push him out of the direction.

200. The leading guide will observe, with the greatest precision, the length and cadence of the step, and maintain the direction of his march by the means prescribed No. 89.

201. The following guide will march exactly in the trace of the leading one, preserving between the latter and himself a distance precisely equal to the front of his platoon, and marching in the same step with the leading guide.

202. If the following guide lose his distance from the one leading, (which can only happen by his own fault,) he will correct himself by slightly lengthening or shortening a few steps, in order that there may not be sudden quickenings or slackenings in the march of his platoon.

203. If the same guide, having neglected to march exactly in the trace of the preceding one, find himself sensibly out of the direction, he will remedy this fault by advancing more or less the shoulder opposite to the true direction, and thus, in a few steps, insensibly regain it, without the inconvenience of the oblique step, which would cause a loss of distance. In all cases, each chief of platoon will cause it to conform to the movements of its guide.

Remarks on the march in column.

204. If the chiefs and guides of subdivisions neglect to lead off and to decide the march from the first step, the march will be begun in uncertainty, which will cause waverings, a loss of step and a loss of distance.

205. If the leading guide take unequal steps, the march of his subdivision, and that which follows, will be uncertain; there will be undulations, quickenings, and slackenings in the march.

206. If the same guide be not habituated to prolong a given direction, without deviation, he will describe a crooked line, and the column must wind to conform itself to such line.

207. If the following guide be not habituated to march in the trace of the preceding one, he will lose his distance at every moment in endeavors to regain the trace, the preservation of which is the most important principle in the march in column.

208. The guide of each subdivision in column will be responsible for the direction, distance and step; the chief of the subdivision for the order and conformity of his subdivision with the movements of the guide. Accordingly, the chief will frequently turn, in the march, to observe his subdivision.

209. The instructor placed on the flank of the guides, will watch over the execution of all the principles prescribed ; he will, also, sometimes place himself in the rear, align himself on the guides, and halt, pending some thirty paces together, to verify the accuracy of the guides.

210. In column, chiefs of subdivision will always repeat, with the greatest promptitude, the commands march and halt, no chief waiting for another, but each repeating the command the moment he catches it from the instructor. They will repeat no other command given by him; but will explain, if necessary, to their subdivisions, in an under tone of voice, what they will have to execute, as indicated by the commands of caution.

 ARTICLE THIRD,

To change direction.

211. The changes of direction of a column while marching, will be executed according to the principles prescribed for wheeling on the march. Whenever, therefore, a column is to change direction, the instructor will change the guide, if not already there, to the flank opposite the side to which the change is to be made.

212. The column being in march right in front, if it be the wish of the instructor to change direction to the right, he will give the order to the chief of the first platoon, and immediately go himself, or send a marker to the point at which the change of direction is to be made; the instructor, or marker, will place himself on the direction of the guides, so as to present the breast to that flank of the column.

213. The leading guide will direct his march on that person, so that, in passing, his left arm may just graze his breast. When the leading guide shall have approached near to the marker, the chief of his platoon will command:

1. Right wheel. 2. MARCH.

214. The first command will be given when the platoon is at the distance of four paces from the marker.

215. At the command march, which will be pronounced at the instant the guide shall have arrived opposite the marker, the platoon win wheel to the right, conforming to what is prescribed in the school of the soldier, No. 396

216. The wheel being finished, the chief of each platoon will command:

3. Forward. 4. MARCH.

217. These commands will be pronounced and executed as is prescribed in the school of the soldier, Nos. 398 and 399. The guide of the first platoon will take points on the ground in the new direction, in order the better to regulate the march.

218. The second platoon will continue to march straight forward till up with the marker, when it will wheel to the right, and retake the direct march by the same commands and the same means which governed the first platoon.

219. The column being in march right in front, if the instructor should wish to change direction to the left, he will command, guide right. At this command, the two guides will move rapidly to the right of their respective platoons, each passing in front of his subdivision; the men will take the touch of elbows to the right; the instructor will afterwards conform to what is prescribed No. 212.

220. The change of direction to the left will then be executed according to the same principles as the change of direction to the right, but by inverse means.

221. When the change of direction is completed, the instructor will command, guide left.

222. The changes of direction in a column, left in front, will be executed according to the same principles.

223. In changes of direction in double quick time, the platoons will wheel according to the principles prescribed in the school of the soldier, No. 404.

224. In order to prepare the men for those formations in line, which can be executed only by turning to the right or the left, the instructor will sometimes cause the column to change direction to the side of the guide. In this case, the chief of the leading platoon will command: left (or right) turn, instead of left (or right) wheel. The subdivisions will each turn, in succession, conforming to what is prescribed in the school of the soldier, No, 402. The leading guide, as soon as he has turned, will take points on the ground the better to regulate the direction of the march. .

225 It is highly important, in order to preserve distances and the direction, that all the subdivisions of the column should change direction precisely at the point where the leading subdivision changed; it is for this reason that that point ought to be marked in advance, and that it is prescribed that the guides direct their march on the marker, also that each chief of subdivision shall not cause the change to commence till the guide of his subdivision has grazed the breast of this marker.

226. Each chief will take care that his subdivision arrives at the point of change in a square with the line of direction; with this view, he will face to his subdivision when the one which precedes has commenced to turn or to wheel, and he will be watchful that it continues to march squarely until it arrives at the point where the change of direction is to commence.

227. If, in changes of direction, the pivot of the subdivision which wheels should not clear the wheeling point, the next subdivision would be arrested and distances lost; for the guide who conducts the marching flank having to describe an arc, in length about a half greater than the front of the subdivision, the second subdivision would be already up with the wheeling point, whilst the first which wheels has yet the half of its front to execute, and hence would be obliged to mark time until that half be executed. It is therefore prescribed, that the pivot of each subdivision should take steps of nine or eleven inches in length, according to the swiftness of the gait, in order not to arrest the march of the next subdivision. The chiefs of subdivision will look well to the step of the pivot, and cause his step to be lengthened or shortened as may be judged necessary. By the nature of this movement, the centre of each subdivision will bend a little to the rear.

228. The guides will never alter the length or the cadence of the step, whether the change of direction be to the side of the guide or to the opposite side.

229. The marker, placed at the wheeling point, will always present his breast to the flank of the column. The instructor will take the greatest pains in causing the prescribed principles to be observed; he will see that each subdivision only commences the change of direction when the guide, grazing the breast of the marker, has nearly passed him, and, that the marching flank does not describe the arc of too large a circle, in order that it may not be thrown beyond the new direction.

230. In change of direction by wheel, the guide of the wheeling flank will cast his eyes over the ground at the moment of commencing the wheel, and will describe an arc of a circle whose radius is equal to the front of the subdivision.

ARTICLE FOURTH.

To halt the column.

231. The column being in march, when the instructor shall wish to halt it, he will command:

1. Column. 2. HALT.

232. At the second command, promptly repeated by the chiefs of platoon, the column will halt; the guides will also stand fast, although they may have lost both distance and direction.

233. If the command halt, be not repeated with the greatest vivacity, and executed at the same instant, distances will be lost.

234. If a guide, having lost his distance, seek to recover it after that command, be will only throw his fault on the following guide, who, if he have marched well, will no longer be at his proper distance; and if the latter regain what he has thus lost, the movement will be propagated to the rear of the column.

ARTICLE FIFTH.

Being in column by platoon, to form to the right or left into line of battle, either at a halt or on the march.

235. The instructor having halted the column, right in front, and wishing to form it into line of battle, will place himself at platoon distance in front of the leading guide, face to him, and rectify, if necessary, the position of the guide beyond; which being executed, he will command:

Left-DRESS.

236. At this command, which will not be repeated by the chiefs of platoon, each of them will place himself briskly two paces outside of his guide, and direct the alignment of the platoon perpendicularly to the direction of the column.

237. Each chief having aligned his platoon, will command FRONT, and return quickly to his place in column.

238. This disposition being made, the instructor will command:

1. Left into line, wheel. 2. MARCH.

239. At the command march, briskly repeated by chiefs of platoon, the front rank man on the left of each platoon will face to the left, and place his breast lightly against the arm of the guide by his side, who stands fast; the platoons will wheel to the left on the principle of wheels from a halt, and in conformity to what is prescribed No. 194. Each chief will turn to his platoon, to observe its movement, and when the marching flank has approached near the line of battle, he will command:

1. Platoon. 2. HALT.

240. The command halt will be given when the marching flank of the platoon is three paces from the line of battle.

241. The chief of the second platoon, having halted it, will return to his place as a file closer, passing around the left of his subdivision.

242. The captain having halted the first platoon, will move rapidly to the point at which the right of the company will rest in line of battle, and command:

Right- DRESS.

243. At this command, the two platoons will dress up on the alignment; the front rank man on the right of the leading platoon, who finds himself opposite the instructor established on the direction of the guides, will place his breast lightly against the left arm of this officer. The captain will direct the alignment from the right on the man on the opposite flank of the company.

244. The company being aligned, the captain will command

FRONT.

245. The instructor, seeing the company in line of battle, will command:

Guides-POSTS.

246. At this command, the covering sergeant will cover the captain, and the left guide will return to his place as a file closer.

247. If the column be left in front, and the instructor should wish to form it to the right into line of battle, he will place himself at platoon distance in front of the leading guide, face to him, and rectify, if necessary, the position of the guide beyond; which being executed, he will command:

1. Right into line, wheel. 2. MARCH.

248. At the command march, the front rank man on the right of each platoon will face to the right and place his breast lightly against the left arm of the guide by his side, who stands fast; each platoon will wheel to the right, and will be halted by its chief, when the marching flank has approached near the line of battle; for this purpose, the chief of each platoon will command:

1.Platoon. 2. HALT.

249. The command halt will be given when the marching flank of the platoon is three paces from the line of battle. The chief of the second platoon having halted his platoon, will resume his place in the rank of file closers.

250. The captain having halted the first platoon, will move briskly to the point at which the left of the company will rest, and command:

Left-DRESS.

251. At this command, the two platoons will dress up on the alignment; the man on the left of the second platoon, opposite the instructor, will place his breast lightly against the right arm of this officer, and the captain will direct the alignment from the left on the man on the opposite  flank of the company.

252. The company being aligned, the captain will command:

FRONT.

253. The instructor will afterwards command:

Guides-POSTS.

254. At this command, the captain will move to the right of his company, the covering sergeant will cover him and the left guide will return to his place as a file closer.

255. The instructor may omit the command left or right dress, previous to commanding left or right into line, wheel, unless, after rectifying the position of the guides, it should become necessary to dress the platoons, or one of them, laterally to the right or left.

256. The instructor, before the command left (or right) into line, wheel, will assure himself that the rearmost platoon is at its exact wheeling distance from the one in front. This attention is important, in order to detect negligence on the part of guides in this essential point.

257. If the column be marching right in front, and the instructor should wish to form it into line without halting the column, he will give the commands prescribed No. 238, and move rapidly to platoon, distance in front of the leading guide.

258. At the command march, briskly repeated by the chiefs of platoon the left guides will halt short, the instructor, the chiefs of platoon: and the platoons, will conform to what is prescribed No. 239 and following.

259. If the column be in march left in front, this formation will be made according to the same principles, and by inverse means.

260. If the column be marching, right in front and the instructor should wish to form it into line without halting the column, and to march the company in line to the front, be will command:

1. By platoons left wheel. 2. MARCH.

261. At the command march, briskly repeated by the chiefs of platoon, the left guides will halt; the man next to the left guide in each platoon will mark time; the platoons will wheel to the left, conforming to the principles of a wheel on a fixed pivot. When the right of the platoons shall arrive near the line of battle, the instructor will command:

3. Forward. 4. MARCH. 5. Guide right (or left).

262. At the fourth command, given at the instant the wheel is completed, all the men of the company will move off together with the step of twenty-eight inches; the captain, the chief of the second platoon, the covering sergeant, and the left guide will take their positions as in line of battle.

263. At the fifth command, which will be given immediately after the fourth, the captain and covering sergeant, if not already there, will move briskly to the side on which the guide is designated. The non-commissioned officer charged with the direction will move rapidly in front of the guide, and will be assured in his line of march by the instructor, as is prescribed No. 104. That non-commissioned officer will immediately take points on the ground as indicated in the same number. The men will take the touch of elbows to the side of the guide, conforming themselves to the principles of the march in line.

264.The same principles are applicable to a column left in front.

LESSON SIXTH.

ARTICLE FIRST.

To break the company into platoons, and to re-form the company.

To break the company into platoons.

265. The company marching in the cadenced step, and supposed to make part of a column, right in front, when the instructor shall wish to cause it to break by platoon, he will give the order to the captain, who will command: 1. Break into platoons, and immediately place himself before the centre of the first platoon.

266, At the command break into platoons, the first lieutenant will pass quickly around the left to the Center of his platoon, and give the caution: Mark time.

267. The captain will then command: 2. March.

268. The first platoon will continue to march straight forward; the covering sergeant will move rapidly to the left flank of this platoon (passing by the front rank) as soon as the flank shall be disengaged.

269. At the command march, given by the captain, the second platoon will begin to mark time; its chief will immediately add: 1. Right oblique. 2. MARCH. The last command will be given so that this platoon may commence obliquing the instant the rear rank of the first platoon shall have passed. The men will shorten the step in obliquing, so that when the command forward march is given, the platoon may have its exact distance.

270. The guide of the second platoon being near the direction of the guide of the first, the chief of the second will command Forward, and add MARCH, the instant that the guide of his platoon shall cover the guide of the first.

271. In a column, left in front, the company will break into platoons by inverse means, applying to the first platoon all that has been prescribed for the second, and reciprocally.

272. In this case, the left guide of the company will shift to the right flank of the second platoon, and the covering sergeant will remain on the right of the first.

To re-form the company.

273. The column, by platoon, being in march, right in front, when the instructor shall wish to cause it to form company, he will give order to the captain, who will command: Form company.

274. Having given this command, the captain will immediately add: 1. First platoon. 2. Right oblique.

275. The chief of the second platoon will caution it to continue to march straight forward.

276. The captain will then command: 3. MARCH.

277. At this command, repeated by the chief of the second, the first platoon will oblique to the right, in order to unmask the second; the covering sergeant, on the left of the first platoon, will return to the right of the company, passing by the front rank.

278. When the first platoon shall have nearly unmasked the second, the captain will command: 1. Mark time, and at the instant the unmasking shall be complete, be will add: 2. MARCH. The first platoon will then cease to oblique, and mark time.

279. In the mean time the second platoon will have continued to march straight forward, and when it shall be nearly up with the first, the captain will command Forward, and at the instant the two platoons shall unite, add MARCH; the first platoon will then cease to mark time.

280. In a column, left in front, the same movement will be executed by inverse means, the chief of the second platoon giving the command Forward, and the captain adding the command MARCH, when the platoons are united.

281. The guide of the second platoon, on its right, will pass to its left flank the moment the platoons begin to oblique; the guide of the first, on its right, remaining on that flank of the platoon.

282. The instructor will also sometimes cause the company to break and re-form by platoon, by his own direct commands. In this case, he will give the general commands prescribed for the captain above: 1. Break into platoons; 2. MARCH; and 1. Form Company; 2. MARCH.

283. If, in breaking the company into platoons, the subdivision that breaks off should mark time too long, it might, in a column of many subdivisions, arrest the march of the following one, which would cause a lengthening of the column, and a loss of distances.

284. In breaking into platoons, it is necessary that the platoons which oblique should not shorten the step too much, in order not to lose distance in column, and not to arrest the march of the following subdivision.

285. If a platoon obliques too far to a flank, it would be obliged to oblique again to the opposite flank, to regain the direction, and by the double movement arrest, probably, the march of the following subdivision.

286. The chiefs of those platoons which oblique will face to their platoons, in order to enforce the observance of the foregoing principles.

287 When, in a column of several companies, they break in succession, it is of the greatest importance that each company should continue to march in the same step, without shortening or slackening, whilst that which precedes breaks, although the following company should close upon the preceding one. This attention is essential to guard against an elongation of the column.

288. Faults of but little moment, in a column of a few companies, would be serious inconveniences in a general column of many battalions. Hence the instructor will give the greatest care in causing all the prescribed principles to be strictly observed. To this end, he will bold himself on the directing flank, the better to in observe all the movements.

ARTICLE SECOND.

Being in column, to break files to the rear, and to cause them to re-enter into line.

289. The company being in march, and supposed to constitute a subdivision of a column, right (or left) in front, when the instructor shall wish to cause files to break off he will give the order to the captain, who will immediately turn to his company, and command:

1. Two files from left (or right) to rear. 2. MARCH.

290. At the command march, the two files on the left (or right) of the company, will mark time, the others will continue to march straight forward; the two rear rank men of these files will, as soon as the rear rank of the company shall clear them, move to the right by advancing the outer shoulder; the odd number will place himself behind the third file from that flank, the even number behind the fourth, passing  for this purpose behind the odd number; the two front rank men will, in like manner, move to the right when the rear rank of the company shall clear them, the odd number will place himself behind the first file, the even number behind the second file, passing for this purpose behind the odd number. If the files are broken from the right, the men will move to the left, advancing the outer shoulder, the even number of the rear rank will place himself behind the third file, the odd number of the same rank behind the fourth; the even number of the front rank behind the first file, the odd number of the same rank behind the second, the odd numbers for this purpose passing behind the even numbers. The men will be careful not to lose their distances and to keep aligned.

291. If the instructor should still wish to break two files from the same side, he will give the order to the captain, who will proceed as above directed.

292. At the command march, given by the captain, the files already broken, advancing a little the outer shoulder, will gain the space of two files to the right, if the files are broken from the left, and to the left, if the files are broken from the right, shortening, at the same time, the step, in order to make room between themselves and the rear rank of the company for the files last ordered to the rear; the latter will break by the same commands and in the same manner as the first. The men who double should increase the length of the step in order to prevent distances from being lost.

293. The instructor may thus diminish the front of a company by breaking off successive groups of two files, but the new files must always be broken front the same side.

294. The instructor, wishing to cause files broken off to return into line, he will give the order to the captain, who will immediately command:

1. Two files into line. 2. MARCH.

295. At the command march, the first two files of those marching by the flank will return briskly into line, and the others will gain the space of two files by advancing the inner shoulder towards the flank to which they belong.

296. The captain will turn to his company, to watch the observance of the principles which have just been prescribed.

297. The instructor having caused groups of two files to break one after another, and to return again into line, will afterwards cause two or three groups to break together, and for this purpose, will command: Four or six files from left (or right) to rear; MARCH. The files designated will mark time; each rank will advance a little the outer shoulder as soon as the rear rank of the company shall clear it, will oblique at once, and each group will place itself behind the four neighboring files, and in the same manner, as if the movement had been executed group by group, taking care that the distances are preserved.

298. The instructor will next order the captain to cause two or three groups to be brought into line at once, who turning to the company, will command:

Four or six files into line-MARCH.

299. At the command march, the files designated will advance the inner shoulder, move up and form on the flank of the company by the shortest lines.

300. As often as files shall break off to the rear, the guide on that flank will gradually close on the nearest front rank man remaining in line, and he will also open out to make room for files ordered into line.

301. The files which march in the rear are disposed in the following order: the left files as if the company was marching by the right flank, and the right files as if the company was marching by the left flank. Consequently, whenever there is on the right or left of a subdivision, a file which does not belong to a group, it will be broken singly.

302. It is necessary to the preservation of distances in column that the men should be habituated in the schools of detail to execute the movements of this article with precision.

303. If new files broken off do not step well to the left or right in obliquing; if, when files are ordered into line, they do not move up with promptitude and precision, in either case the following files will be arrested in their march, and thereby cause the column to be lengthened out.

304. The instructor will place himself on the flank from which the files are broken, to assure himself of the exact observance of the principles.

305. Files will only be broken off from the side of direction, in order that the whole company may easily pass from the front to the flank march.

ARTICLE THIRD.

To march the column in route, and to execute the movements incident thereto.

306. The swiftness of the route step will be one hundred and ten steps in a minute; this swiftness will be habitually maintained in columns in route, when the roads and ground may permit.

307. The company being at a halt, and supposed to constitute a subdivision of a column, when the instructor shall wish to cause it to march in the route step he will command:

1. Column, forward. 2.Guide left (or right.) 3. Route step. 4. MARCH.

308. At the command march, repeated by the captain, the two ranks will step off together; the rear rank will take, in marching, by shortening a few steps, a distance of one pace (twenty-eight inches) from the rank preceding, which distance will be computed from the breasts of the men in the rear rank, to the knapsacks of the men in the front rank. The men, without farther command, will immediately carry their arms at will, as indicated in the school of the soldier, No. 219. They will no longer be required to march in the cadenced pace, or with the same foot, or to remain silent. The files will march at ease; but care will be taken to prevent the ranks from intermixing, the front rank from getting in advance of the guide, and the rear rank from opening to too great a distance.

309. The company marching in the route step, the instructor will cause it to change direction, which will be executed without formal commands, on a simple caution from the captain; the rear rank will come up to change direction in the same manner as the front rank. Each rank will conform itself, although in the route step, to the principles which have been prescribed for the change in closed ranks, with this difference only; that the pivot man, instead of taking steps of nine, will take steps of fourteen inches, in order to clear the wheeling point.

310. The company marching in the route step, to cause it to pass to the cadenced step, the instructor will first order pieces to be brought to the right shoulder, and then command:

1.Close order. 2. MARCH.

311. At the command march, the men will resume the cadenced step, and will close so as to leave a distance of sixteen inches between each rank.

312. The company marching in the cadenced pace, the instructor to cause it to take the route step will command:

1. Route step. 2. MARCH.

313. At the command march, the front rank will continue the step of twenty-eight inches; the rear rank will take, by gradually shortening the step, the distance of twenty-eight inches from the front rank; the men will carry their arms at will.

314. If the company be marching in the route step, and the instructor should suppose the necessity of marching by the flank in the same direction, he will command:

1. Company by the right (or left) flank. 2. By file left (or right.) 3. MARCH.

315. At the command march, the company will face to the right (or left) in marching, the captain will place himself by the side of the guide who conducts the leading flank; this guide will wheel immediately to the left or right; all the files will come in succession to wheel on the same spot as the guide; if there be files broken off to the rear, they will, by wheeling, regain their respective places, and follow the movement of the company.

316. The instructor having caused the company to be again formed into line, will exercise it in increasing and diminishing front, by platoon: which will be executed by the same commands and the same means, as if the company were marching in the cadenced step. When the company breaks into platoons, the chief of each will move to the flank of his platoon and will take the place of the guide, who will step back into the rear rank.

317. The company being in column by platoon, and supposed to march in the route step, the instructor can cause the front to be diminished and increased, by section, if the platoons have a front of twelve. files or more.

318. The movements of diminishing and increasing front, by section, will be executed according to the principles indicated for the same movements by platoon. The right sections of platoons will be commanded by the captain and first lieutenant, respectively; the left sections by the two next subalterns in rank, or, in their absence, by sergeants.

319. The instructor wishing to diminish by section, will give the order to the captain, who will command:

1. Break into sections. 2. MARCH.

320. As soon as the platoons shall be broken, each chief of section will place himself on its directing flank in the front rank the guides who will be thus displaced, will fall back into the rear rank; the file closers will close up to within one pace of this rank.

321. Platoons will be broken into sections only in the column in route; the movement will never be executed in the manoeuvres, whatever may be the front of the company.

322. When the instructor shall wish to re-form platoons, he will give the order to the captain, who will command:

1. Form platoons. 2. MARCH.

323. At the first command, each chief of section will place himself before its centre, and the guides will pass into the front rank. At the command march, the movement will be executed as has been prescribed for forming company. The moment the platoons are formed, the chiefs of the left sections will return to their places as file closers.

324. The instructor will also cause to be executed the diminishing and increasing front by files, as prescribed in the preceding article, and in the same manner, as if marching in the cadenced step. When the company is broken into sections, the subdivisions must not be reduced to a front of less than six files, not counting the chief of the section.

325. The company being broken by platoon or by section the instructor will cause it, marching in the route step, to march by the flank in the same direction, by the commands and the means indicated, Nos. 314 and 315. The moment the subdivisions shall face to the right (or left,) the first file of each will wheel to the left (or right,) in marching, to prolong the direction, and to unite with the rear file of the subdivision immediately preceding. The file closers will take their habitual places in the march by the flank, before the union of the subdivisions.

 326. If the company be marching by the right flank, and the instructor should wish to undouble the files, which might sometimes be found necessary, he will inform the captain, who, after causing the cadenced step to be resumed, and arms to be shouldered or supported, will command:

1. In two ranks, undouble files. 2. MARCH.

327. At the second command, the odd numbers will continue to march straight forward, the even numbers will shorten the step, and obliquing to the left will place themselves promptly behind the odd numbers; the rear rank will gain a step to the left, so as to retake the touch of elbows on the side of the front rank.

328. If the company be marching by the left flank, it will be the even numbers who will continue to march forward, and the odd numbers who will undouble.

329. If the instructor should wish to double the files, he will give the order to the captain, who will command:

1. In four ranks, double files. 2. MARCH.

330. At the command march, the files will double in the manner as explained, when the company faces by the right or the left flank. The instructor will afterwards cause the route step to be resumed.

331. The various movements prescribed in this lesson may be executed in double quick time. The men will be brought, by degrees, to pass over at this gait about eleven hundred yards in seven minutes.

332. When the company marching in the route step shall halt, the rear rank will close up at the command halt, and the whole will shoulder arms.

333. Marching in the route step, the men will be permitted to carry their pieces in the manner they shall find most convenient, paying attention only to holding the muzzles up, so as to avoid accidents.

ARTICLE FOURTH.

Countermarch.

334. The company being at a halt, and supposed to constitute part of a column, right in front, when the instructor shall wish to cause it to countermarch, he will command:

1. Countermarch. 2. Company, right-FACE. 3. By file left. 4. MARCH.

335. At the second command the company will face to the right, the two guides to the right about; the captain will go to the right of his company and cause two files to break to the rear, and then place himself by the side of the front rank man, to conduct him.

336. At the command march, both guides will stand fast; the company will step off smartly; the first file conducted by the captain, will wheel around the right guide, and direct its march along the front rank so as to arrive behind, and two paces from the left guide; each file will come in succession to wheel on the same ground around the right guide; the leading file having arrived at a point opposite to the left guide, the captain will command:

1. Company. 2. HALT. 3. FRONT. 4. Right-DRESS.

337. The first command will be given at four paces from the point where the leading file is to rest.

338. At the second command, the company will halt.

339. At the third, it will face to the front.

340. At the fourth, the company will dress by the right; the captain will step two paces outside of the left guide, now on the right, and direct the alignment, so that the front rank may be enclosed between the two guides; the company being aligned, he will command FRONT, and place himself before the centre of the company as if in column; the guides, passing along the front rank, will shift to their proper places, on the right and left of that rank

341. In a column, by platoon, the countermarch will be executed by the same commands, and according to the same principles; the guide of each platoon will face about, and its chief will place himself by the Hide of the file on the right, to conduct it.

342. In a column, left in front, the countermarch will be executed by inverse commands and means, but according to the same principles. Thus, the movement will be made by the right flank of subdivisions, if the right be in front, and by the left flank, if the left be in front; in both cases the subdivisions will wheel by file to the side of the front rank.

ARTICLE FIFTH.

Being in column by platoon, to form on the right (or left) into line of battle.

343. The column by platoon, right in front, being in march, the instructor, wishing to form it on the right into line of battle, will command:

1. On the right into line. 2. Guide right.

344. At the second command, the guide of each platoon will shift quickly to its right flank, and the men will touch elbows to the right; the column will continue to march straight forward.

345. The instructor having given the second command, will move briskly to the point at which the right of the company ought to rest in line, and place himself facing the point of direction to the left which be will choose.

346. The line of battle ought to be so chosen that the guide of each platoon, after having turned to the right, may have, at least, ten paces to take before arriving upon that line.

347. The head of the column being nearly opposite to the instructor, the chief of the first platoon will command:

1. Right turn; and when exactly opposite to that point, he will add: 2. MARCH.

348. At the command march, the first platoon will turn to the right, in conformity with the principles prescribed in the school of the soldier, No. 402. Its guide will so direct his march as to bring the front rank man, next on his left, opposite to the instructor; the chief of the platoon will march before its centre; and when its guide shall be near the line of battle, he will command:

1. Platoon. 2. HALT.

349. At the command halt, which will be given at the instant the right of the platoon shall arrive at the distance of three paces from the line of battle, the platoon will halt; the files, not yet in line, will come up promptly. The guide will throw himself on the line of battle, opposite to one of the three left files of his platoon; he will face to the instructor, who will align him on the point of direction to the left, The chief of platoon having, at the same time, gone to the point where the right of the company is to rest, will, as soon as he sees all the files of the platoon in line, command

Right-DRESS.

350. At this, the first platoon will align itself; the front rank man, who finds himself opposite to the guide, will rest his breast lightly against the right arm of this guide, and the chief of the platoon, from the right, will direct the alignment on this man.

351. The second platoon will continue to march straight forward, until its guide shall arrive opposite to the left file of the first; it will then turn to the right at the command of its chief, and march towards the line of battle, its guide directing himself on the left file of the first platoon.

352. The guide having arrived at the distance of three paces from the line of battle, this platoon will be halted, as prescribed for the first; at the instant it halts, its guide will spring on the line of battle, opposite to one of the three left files of his platoon, and will be assured in his position by the instructor.

353. The chief of the second platoon, seeing all its files in line, and its guide established on the direction, will command:

Right-DRESS.

354. Having given this command, he will return to his place as a file closer, passing around the left; the second platoon will dress up on the alignment of the first, and, when established, the captain will command:

FRONT.

355. The movement ended, the instructor will command:

Guides-POSTS.

356. At this command, the two guides will return to their places in line of battle.

357. A column, by platoon, left in front, will form on the left into line of battle, according to the same principles, and, by inverse means, applying to the second platoon what is prescribed for the first, and reciprocally. The chief of the second platoon having aligned it, from the point of appui, (the left,) will retire to his place as a file closer. The captain having halted the first platoon three paces behind the line of battle, will go to the same point to align is this platoon, and then command: FRONT. At the command, guides-posts, given by the instructor, the captain will shift to his proper flank, and the guides take their places in the line of battle.

358. When the companies of a regiment are to be exercised, at the same time, in the school of the company, the colonel will indicate the lesson or lessons they are severally to execute. The whole will commence by a bugle signal, and terminate in like manner.

Formation of a company from two ranks into single rank, and reciprocally.

359. The company being formed into two ranks, in the manner indicated No. 8, school of the soldier, and supposed to make part of a column, right or left in front, when the instructor shall wish to form it into single rank, he will command:

1. In one rank, form company. 2. MARCH.

360. At the first command, the right guide will face to the right.

361. At the command march, the right guide will step off and march in the prolongation of the front rank.

362. The first file will step off at the same time with the guide; the front rank man will turn to the right at the first step, follow the guide, and be himself followed by the rear rank man of his file, who will come to turn on the same spot where be had turned. The second file, and successively all the other files, will step off as has been prescribed for the first, the front rank man of each file following the rear rank man of the file next on his right.  The captain will superintend the movement, and when the last man shall have stepped off, he will half the company, and face it to the front.

363. The file closers will take their places in the line of battle, two paces in the rear of the rank.

364. The company being in single rank, when the instructor shall wish to form it into two ranks, he will command:

1. In two ranks, form company. 2. Company, right-FACE. 3. MARCH.

365. At the second command, the company will face to the night: the right guide and the man on the right will remain faced to the front.

366. At the command march, the men who have faced to the right, will step off, and form files in the following manner: the second man in the rank will place, himself behind the first to form the first file; the third will place himself by the side of the first in the front rank; the fourth behind the third in the rear rank. All the others will, in like manner, place themselves, alternately, in the front and rear rank, and will thus form files of two men, on the left of those already formed.

367. The formations above described will be habitually executed by the right of companies; but when the instructor shall wish to have them executed by the left, be will face the company about, and post the guides in the rear rank.

368. The formation will then be executed by the same commands and according to the same principles as by the front rank; the movement commencing with the left file, now become the right, and in each file by the rear rank man, now become the front; the left guide will conform to what has been prescribed for the right.

369. The formation ended, the instructor will face the company to its proper front.

370. When a battalion in line has to execute either of the formations above described, the colonel will cause it to break to the rear by the right or left of companies, and will then give the commands just prescribed for the instructor. Each company will execute the movement as if acting singly.

Formation of a company front two ranks into four, and reciprocally, at a halt, and in march.

371. The company being formed in two ranks, at a halt, and supposed to form part of a column right in front, when the instructor shall wish to form it into four ranks, he will command:

1. In four ranks, form company. 2. Company left-FACE. 3. MARCH (or double quick-MARCH).

372. At the second command, the left guide will remain faced to the front, the company will face to the left; the rear rank will gain the distance of one pace from the front rank by a side step to the left and rear, and the men will form into four ranks as prescribed in the school of the soldier.

373. At the command march, the first file of four men will reface to the front without undoubling. All the other files of four will step off, and closing successively to about five inches of the preceding file, will halt, and immediately face to the front, the men remaining doubled.

374. The file closers will take their new places in line of battle, at two paces in rear of the fourth rank.

375. The captain will superintend the movement.

376. The company being in four ranks, when the instructor shall wish to form it into two ranks, he will command:

1. In two ranks,  form company. 2. Company right-FACE. 3. MARCH (or double quick-MARCH). 

377. At the second command the left guide will stand fast, the company will face to the right.

378. At the command march, the right guide will step off and march in the prolongation of the front rank. The leading file of four men will step off at the same time, the other files standing fast; the second file will step off when there shall be between it and the first space sufficient to form into two ranks. The following files will execute successively what has been prescribed for the second. As soon as the last file shall have its distance, the instructor will command:

1. Company. 2. HALT. 3. FRONT. 

379. At the command front, the company will face to the front and the files will undouble.

380. The company being formed in two ranks, and marching to the front, when the instructor shall wish to form it into four ranks he will command:

1. In four ranks, form company. 2. By the left double files. 3. MARCH (or double quick-MARCH).

381. At the command march, the left guide and the left file of the company will continue to march straight to the front; the company will make a half face to the left, the odd numbers placing themselves behind the even numbers. The even numbers of the rear rank will shorten their steps a little, to permit the odd numbers of the front rank to get between them and the even numbers of that rank. The files thus formed of fours, except the left file, will continue to march obliquely, lengthening their steps slightly, so as to keep constantly abreast of the guide; each file will close successively on the file next on its left, and when at the proper distance from that file, will face to the front by a half face to the right, and take the touch of elbows to the left.

382. The company being in march to the front in four ranks, when the instructor shall wish to form it into two ranks, be will command:

1. In two ranks, form company. 2. By the right, undouble files. 3.MARCH (or double quick MARCH).

383. At the command march, the left guide and the left file of the company will continue to march straight to the front; the company will make a half face to the right and march obliquely, lengthening the step a little, in order to keep, as near as possible, abreast of the guide. As soon as the second file from the left shall have gained to the right the interval necessary for the left file to form into two ranks, the second file will face to the front by a half face to the left and march straight forward; the left file will immediately form into two ranks, and take the touch of elbows to the left. Each file will execute successively, what has just been prescribed for the file next to the left, and each file will form into two ranks when the file next on its right has obliqued the required distance and faced to the front.

384. If the company be supposed to make part of a column, left in front, these different movements will be executed according to the same principles and by inverse means, substituting the indication left for right.

END OF THE SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY.